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Maziar Bani Shahabadi, Mark Buehner, Josep Aparicio, and Louis Garand

) background field to the horizontal location of the observation and use the resulting vertical profile as input to the radiative transfer model to obtain the simulated observation. This approach neglects that the instrument line-of-sight is slanted through the atmosphere for off-nadir observations. For high peaking channels, the standard approach extracts the model information at the wrong horizontal location. For example, for a channel that has sensitivity around an altitude of 15 km and a satellite

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Maziar Bani Shahabadi, Josep M. Aparicio, and Louis Garand

1. Introduction Radiance observations are one of the most important sources of data for numerical weather prediction (NWP) ( Cardinali 2009 ; Buehner et al. 2018 ). It is therefore important to optimize the use of these observations in operational data assimilation systems. Improvement to the observation operator used in satellite data assimilation is the subject of this paper. The standard approach in NWP is to perform radiative transfer calculations on interpolated one-dimensional (1D

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Owen E. Thompson

2314 MONTHLY WEATHER REVIEW VOLUM~ 120Regularizing the Satellite Temperature-Retrieval Problem through Singular-Value Decomposition of the Radiative Transfer Physics OWEN E. THOMPSONDepartment of Meteorology, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland(Manuscript received 4 April 1991, in final form 27 November 199 t) A new method is derived for retrieving

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Isaac Moradi, K. Franklin Evans, Will McCarty, Marangelly Cordero-Fuentes, Ronald Gelaro, and Robert A. Black

tropical cyclones. Two techniques that can be used to assimilate satellite cloudy radiances into NWP models are (i) direct assimilation using a radiative transfer (RT) model, also known as a forward model, and (ii) first retrieving atmospheric state variables such as temperature and humidity from satellite radiances and then assimilating retrieved products. a. Direct assimilation of all-sky radiances The main advantage of direct assimilation is that observations from all satellite instruments can be

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Filippo Giorgi, Maria Rosaria Marinucci, and Gary T. Bates

2794 MONTHLY WEATHER REVIEW VOLUME 121Development of a Second-Generation Regional Climate Model (RegCM2). Part I: Boundary-Layer and Radiative Transfer ProcessesFILIPPO GIORGI, MARIA ROSARIA MARINUCCl, AND GARY T. BATESNational Center for Atmospheric Research, * Boulder, Colorado(Manuscript received 4 January 1993, in final form 26 April 1993)ABSTRACT During the last few years the

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Stefan Kinne, Thomas P. Ackerman, Andrew J. Heymsfield, Francisco P. J. Valero, Kenneth Sassen, and James D. Spinhirne

VOLUME 120 MONTHLY WEATHER REVIEW MAY 1992Cirrus Microphysics and Radiative Transfer: Cloud Field Study on 28 October 1986 STEFAN KINNENASA-Ames, Moffett Field, California THOMAS P. ACKERMANThe Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania ANDREW J. HEYMSFIELDNational Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, Colorado FRANCISCO P. J. VALERONASA-Ames, Moffett

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Bruce A. Wielicki, J.T. Suttles, Andrew J. Heymsfield, Ronald M. Welch, James D. Spinhirne, Man-Li C. Wu, David O'C. Starr, Lindsay Parker, and Robert F. Arduini

2356 MONTHLY WEATHER REVIEW VOLUMEThe 27-28 October 1986 FIRE IFO Cirrus Case Study: Comparison of Radiative Transfer Theory with Observations by Satellite and Aircraft BRUCE A. WIELICKI AND J. T. SU'I~LESAtmospheric Sciences Division, NASA Langley Research Center, Hampton, Virginia ANDREW J. HEYMSFIELDNational Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, Colorado

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Graeme L. Stephens and Norman B. Wood

entire troposphere. 3. Data sources The amount of MWR data collected from different tropical locations has increased significantly over the last decade. MWRs were deployed by the ARM program at a number of tropical sites (see section 3c ) making quasi-routine surface observations of tropical cloudiness at these three sites. These MWR measurements are also made in conjunction with other measurement types, including surface precipitation, radiative fluxes, and routine soundings

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Tzvi Gal-Chen

radiative transfer equation at various frequendes; 3) themeasured horizontal wind, and 4) the horizontal equations of motions. We then look for a virtual temperatureprofile that will (in the least-square sense ) satiff3t both the horizontal e~iuations of motions and the radiativetransfer equations. The resulting calculus of variations problem, after suitable manipulations, is then reducedto solving at each horizontal level a Poisson equation for the virtual temperature. The input parameters are

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Rosemary Auld Miller and William M. Frank

thatradiative processes play a more significant role in the evolution oftropical mesoseale convective systems (MCSs)than was once thought. In this study, an interactive radiative transfer scheme is incorporated into a two-dimensional version of the Pennsylvania State University-NCAR Mesoseale Model to simulate the evolution ofthese systems within a large-scale environment under a diurnally varying radiative influence. The radiativeeffects are examined in terms of the net rainfall, diurnal phasing, and the

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