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Amin Dezfuli

regional mean was consistent with some gauge-based records in the area. Fig . 2. Rainfall variability and frequency. (a) Interannual variability of rainfall during the rainy season (October–March) over the region most affected by floods (green box). Monthly data from Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP), version 2.3, has been used to calculate seasonal rainfall totals for each year over the period 1980–2019. The total values have been then standardized by removing the mean and dividing by

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Peter Stucki, Stefan Brönnimann, Olivia Martius, Christoph Welker, Ralph Rickli, Silke Dierer, David N. Bresch, Gilbert P. Compo, and Prashant D. Sardeshmukh

the regional, higher-resolution WRF model (version 3.3.1) for a limited domain over Europe. Two more refinement steps result in three domains. Horizontal grid spacing decreases from 45 km in the largest domain to 9 km in the intermediate to 3 km in the smallest domain, which covers Switzerland and adjacent regions. The vertical structure of the atmosphere is described using 31 vertical layers. 2 Hourly model output is used for the analysis. The simulation starts at 0600 UTC on 13 February 1925

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Clifford F. Mass, Robert Conrick, Nicholas Weber, and Joseph P. Zagrodnik

. Photographs by Olympic National Park personnel and others showed numerous treefalls, documenting both the large size of some of the fallen trees and the extraordinary force required to damage them ( Fig. 2 ). Fig . 1. (a) View of the regional geography, with a red star indicating the location of the downed trees. (b) A closer view showing Lake Quinault, the surrounding terrain, and ground sites referenced in this study. The Forks profiler and Quillayute radiosonde sites are also shown in (a). Fig . 2

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F. M. Ralph and M. D. Dettinger

-precipitation events in the mountains of California are found to be comparable with the strongest events elsewhere nationally, which occur in the southeastern United States (including Texas). Extreme precipitation events in California are further notable because, unlike those in Texas and the Southeast, several California stations have experienced multiple R-Cat 3–4 episodes during their periods of record. This difference is likely the result of more profound orographic effects in California. Fig. 3. Maximum 3-day

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