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Anthony M. DeAngelis, Hailan Wang, Randal D. Koster, Siegfried D. Schubert, Yehui Chang, and Jelena Marshak

MERRA-2, as described in section 2c , is shown in (a)–(c). The Z scores are computed as anomalies normalized by the standard deviation over 1999–2015. The box indicates the core drought region (105°–83°W, 33°–50°N), which is used for computing regional averages throughout the paper. The causes of the 2012 flash drought have been extensively studied yet remain an active area of research. While there is substantial evidence for a connection between North American drought and sea surface

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Christa D. Peters-Lidard, David M. Mocko, Lu Su, Dennis P. Lettenmaier, Pierre Gentine, and Michael Barlage

, state, regional, and national entities that have responsibility for providing, maintaining, and planning water resources and supplying relevant information. Monitoring the state of drought depends on integrating and discerning between myriad indicators of the water cycle ( Keyantash and Dracup 2002 ). Dozens of indicators are in common use (e.g., Heim 2002 ; Svoboda and Fuchs 2017 ), and each indicator captures particular aspects of hydrologic variability and various types and phases of drought

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Richard Seager, Jennifer Nakamura, and Mingfang Ting

national economy. Often not recognized, drought also has serious impacts on the mental health of farming families and people in agricultural communities with long-lasting effects [see U.S.-based review by Vins et al. (2015) ]. Improved understanding and forecasting of drought at least provides the possibility of improved anticipation of, and adaptation to, drought conditions with potential benefits for people and society. Understanding the physical causes of droughts in North America, and the relative

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