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Adam C. Varble, Stephen W. Nesbitt, Paola Salio, Joseph C. Hardin, Nitin Bharadwaj, Paloma Borque, Paul J. DeMott, Zhe Feng, Thomas C. J. Hill, James N. Marquis, Alyssa Matthews, Fan Mei, Rusen Öktem, Vagner Castro, Lexie Goldberger, Alexis Hunzinger, Kevin R. Barry, Sonia M. Kreidenweis, Greg M. McFarquhar, Lynn A. McMurdie, Mikhail Pekour, Heath Powers, David M. Romps, Celeste Saulo, Beat Schmid, Jason M. Tomlinson, Susan C. van den Heever, Alla Zelenyuk, Zhixiao Zhang, and Edward J. Zipser

used global numerical weather prediction and regional convection-allowing model guidance that was run every 6–12 h by SMN, the University of Illinois, and Colorado State University (CSU). When deep convection was forecasted, AMF1 radiosonde launch frequency was increased from 4- to 3-hourly between 0900 and 2100 LT. Additional sondes were also occasionally launched from the Villa Dolores site. In addition, Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite-16 ( GOES-16 ) mesoscale domain sectors

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Hernán Bechis, Paola Salio, and Juan José Ruiz

regions of the world ( Schaefer 1986 ) like India ( Weston 1972 ; Akter and Tsuboki 2017 ), eastern China ( Golden 1980 ; Qin and Chen 2017 ), central West Africa ( Hamilton et al. 1945 ), Australia ( Arnup and Reeder 2007 ), and Canada ( Taylor et al. 2011 ). In each of these regions, drylines have their own characteristics and development mechanisms, which are strongly linked to local orography and regional synoptic climatology. Dryline climatologies (i.e., the study of their frequency, spatial

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Stephen W. Nesbitt, Paola V. Salio, Eldo Ávila, Phillip Bitzer, Lawrence Carey, V. Chandrasekar, Wiebke Deierling, Francina Dominguez, Maria Eugenia Dillon, C. Marcelo Garcia, David Gochis, Steven Goodman, Deanna A. Hence, Karen A. Kosiba, Matthew R. Kumjian, Timothy Lang, Lorena Medina Luna, James Marquis, Robert Marshall, Lynn A. McMurdie, Ernani de Lima Nascimento, Kristen L. Rasmussen, Rita Roberts, Angela K. Rowe, Juan José Ruiz, Eliah F.M.T. São Sabbas, A. Celeste Saulo, Russ S. Schumacher, Yanina Garcia Skabar, Luiz Augusto Toledo Machado, Robert J. Trapp, Adam C. Varble, James Wilson, Joshua Wurman, Edward J. Zipser, Ivan Arias, Hernán Bechis, and Maxwell A. Grover

The United States is infamous for its hazardous convective storms that produce high-impact weather (HIW), including tornadoes, hail, strong winds, lightning, heavy precipitation, and flooding, and cause significant loss of life and property. The hazardous storms are also important components of the regional climate over much of the eastern two-thirds of the United States. Past field campaigns, observational studies, and model experiments have produced knowledge that is the foundation of current

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Robert J. Trapp, Karen A. Kosiba, James N. Marquis, Matthew R. Kumjian, Stephen W. Nesbitt, Joshua Wurman, Paola Salio, Maxwell A. Grover, Paul Robinson, and Deanna A. Hence

-time, 48-h CAM forecasts were generated by three participating institutions, using regional configurations of the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) Model (e.g., Skamarock et al. 2008 ). Additionally, a 96-h forecast was generated using the Model for Prediction Across Scales (MPAS) ( Skamarock et al. 2012 ), in a 15–3 km configuration, such that the computational mesh for the entirety of the South American continent had 3-km gridpoint spacing. It is noteworthy that the simulated reflectivity

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James N. Marquis, Adam C. Varble, Paul Robinson, T. Connor Nelson, and Katja Friedrich

1. Introduction Correctly representing moist convective processes is critical to accurately predicting regional and global weather and climate, and accompanying operational forecasting of near- and long-term hydrology and severe weather. Numerical simulations rely on a mix of cumulus, turbulence, microphysics, and planetary boundary layer parameterization schemes to represent the generation of shallow and deep moist updrafts and precipitation (e.g., Tiedtke 1989 ; Kain and Fritsch 1990

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Timothy J. Lang, Eldo E. Ávila, Richard J. Blakeslee, Jeff Burchfield, Matthew Wingo, Phillip M. Bitzer, Lawrence D. Carey, Wiebke Deierling, Steven J. Goodman, Bruno Lisboa Medina, Gregory Melo, and Rodolfo G. Pereyra

area where convective initiation, upscale growth, and development of severe weather can occur in rapid succession, enabling a natural laboratory for studying multiple stages of convective evolution without needing to cover the large distances often required in, for example, the U.S. central plains. Fig . 1. Map of the RELAMPAGO LMA. Station names are listed next to their positions. The inset shows the regional context for the network. To study the above phenomena, two coordinated international

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