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Jan Wandel, Julian F. Quinting, and Christian M. Grams

biases in meridional moisture flux at 850 hPa (500 hPa). These biases in moisture flux, in particular over the North Pacific, correspond to biases in the atmospheric river frequency in ECMWF’s S2S forecasts reported by DeFlorio et al. (2019) . For the WCB outflow, the correlation varies between the different predictor variables and the North Atlantic and North Pacific region. The correction of the biases in the predictor variables leads to a reduction in biases for the WCB inflow and ascent, but

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Joël Arnault, Thomas Rummler, Florian Baur, Sebastian Lerch, Sven Wagner, Benjamin Fersch, Zhenyu Zhang, Noah Kerandi, Christian Keil, and Harald Kunstmann

atmospheric model can reduce the difference between simulated and observed seasonal precipitation, at least in the case of a river basin in Denmark. Senatore et al. (2015) applied WRF and its hydrologically enhanced version, that is, WRF-Hydro ( Gochis et al. 2015 ), to a catchment in southern Italy for a 3-yr period. Senatore et al. (2015) concluded that the lateral redistribution of soil moisture additionally resolved in WRF-Hydro reduced surface runoff and increased soil moisture amounts and

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Andreas Schäfler, George Craig, Heini Wernli, Philippe Arbogast, James D. Doyle, Ron McTaggart-Cowan, John Methven, Gwendal Rivière, Felix Ament, Maxi Boettcher, Martina Bramberger, Quitterie Cazenave, Richard Cotton, Susanne Crewell, Julien Delanoë, Andreas Dörnbrack, André Ehrlich, Florian Ewald, Andreas Fix, Christian M. Grams, Suzanne L. Gray, Hans Grob, Silke Groß, Martin Hagen, Ben Harvey, Lutz Hirsch, Marek Jacob, Tobias Kölling, Heike Konow, Christian Lemmerz, Oliver Lux, Linus Magnusson, Bernhard Mayer, Mario Mech, Richard Moore, Jacques Pelon, Julian Quinting, Stephan Rahm, Markus Rapp, Marc Rautenhaus, Oliver Reitebuch, Carolyn A. Reynolds, Harald Sodemann, Thomas Spengler, Geraint Vaughan, Manfred Wendisch, Martin Wirth, Benjamin Witschas, Kevin Wolf, and Tobias Zinner

; Wernli and Davies 1997 ). The boundary layer humidity in the inflow of WCBs (region 1 in Fig. 1 ) can impact the outflow height of WCBs ( Schäfler and Harnisch 2015 ). For some WCBs, the inflow region coincides with a filament of strong horizontal water vapor transport, a so-called atmospheric river, which can contribute to intense rain in the midlatitudes ( Lavers and Villarini 2013 ). During the ascent of WCBs (region 2 in Fig. 1 ), embedded convection, and turbulent fluxes influence the level of

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Stephan Rasp, Tobias Selz, and George C. Craig

with bands of increased humidity at low levels (e.g., atmospheric rivers; Sodemann and Stohl 2013 ). WCBs are usually described as slowly and slantwise ascending airstreams; however, they may also contain embedded convective activity to various degrees. This has been discussed by Neiman et al. (1993) who proposed an elevator–escalator conceptual model to describe this phenomenon. Furthermore, in a conditionally unstable environment it is also possible that the ascent along the cold front

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Roderick van der Linden, Andreas H. Fink, Joaquim G. Pinto, and Tan Phan-Van

N3, that are characterized by a single rainy season that lasts from about May to October. The climate zones N2 and N3 correspond with the political regions “Northeast” and “Red River Delta,” respectively. Monthly rainfall totals in these regions normally peak in July and August (e.g., D.-Q. Nguyen et al. 2014 ; Phan et al. 2009 ), which is partly related to the activity of the ITCZ ( K. C. Nguyen et al. 2014 ). Several factors that can lead to extreme rainfall in the study region during the

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Mirjam Hirt, Stephan Rasp, Ulrich Blahak, and George C. Craig

Deutsch land im Echtzeitbetrieb—Beschreibung des Kompositformats version 2.4.4. (High resolution precipitation analysis and prediction based on quantitative radar and ombrometer data for cross-border river catchment for Germany in real-time operation - Description of the composite format version 2.4.4). DWD, accessed 13 May 2019, https://www.dwd.de/DE/leistungen/radolan/radolan_info/radolan_radvor_op_komposit_format_pdf.pdf?_blob=publicationFile&v=6 . DWD , 2018b : RADOLAN/RADVOR Produktübersicht

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Thomas Engel, Andreas H. Fink, Peter Knippertz, Gregor Pante, and Jan Bliefernicht

: Water in a changing world. United Nations World Water Development Rep. 3, 318 pp., http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0018/001819/181993e.pdf . Zulkafli , Z. , W. Buytaert , C. Onof , B. Manz , E. Tarnavsky , W. Lavado , and J.-L. Guyot , 2014 : Comparative performance analysis of TRMM 3B42 (TMPA) versions 6 and 7 for hydrological applications over Andean–Amazon River basins . J. Hydrometeor. , 15 , 581 – 592 , doi: 10.1175/JHM-D-13-094.1 . 10.1175/JHM-D-13-094.1 1 In 1932, the station

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Gabriel Wolf and Volkmar Wirth

example for the downscale connection between an upper-tropospheric RWP and severe weather is the heavy rain event over central Europe in August 2002 ( Shapiro and Thorpe 2004 ), which led to devastating flooding of the Elbe River ( Ulbrich et al. 2003a , b ). In this case, the associated RWP formed some 10 days before the rain event far upstream over the western Pacific Ocean. Hovmöller diagrams indicate a steady eastward progression of this RWP during its lifetime ( Glatt and Wirth 2014 ). Rossby

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