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Hui Fan
and
Daming He

1. Introduction Ongoing global climatic change is expected to enhance the global hydrologic cycle, which will affect streamflow and water availability and thereby may disturb the discharge regime of rivers ( Barnett et al. 2005 ; Huntington 2006 ; IPCC 2007 ; Oki and Kanae 2006 ). To provide further evidence for warming-induced hydrological cycle intensification, there has been increasing interest in the linkage of climatic variability/change to hydrological processes and water resources

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Peter A. Bieniek
,
Uma S. Bhatt
,
Larry A. Rundquist
,
Scott D. Lindsey
,
Xiangdong Zhang
, and
Richard L. Thoman

1. Introduction Because Alaska lacks roads in rural areas, rivers serve as critical highways—on ice in winter and on water in summer—but are impassable during breakup. In winter, rivers are used as ice roads to reach remote sites for oil and gas exploration and mining operations, as well as to reach the next village. The timing of ice-free conditions, which is dictated largely by the onset of breakup, signals the end of transportation on the ice and the ice roads. The breakup of river ice can

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Xiangbo Feng
,
Wei Zhang
,
Zhenglei Zhu
,
Amulya Chevuturi
, and
Wenlong Chen

1. Introduction Understanding changes and variability in water levels (WLs) of the river delta on various time scales is vital, e.g., for managing water resources and minimizing flood impacts. There are multiple natural factors influencing the river delta WL, including river discharge and sea level, alongside anthropogenic activities such as local water extraction and riverbed dredging. The Pearl River Delta (PRD) is a coastal region of southern China, adjacent to the South China Sea (SCS). In

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Weifeng G. Zhang
,
John L. Wilkin
, and
Oscar M. E. Schofield

coastal ocean biogeochemical processes. Focusing on time scales associated with the spreading of river source waters across the inner shelf, this paper applies CART to the circulation of the Hudson River discharge in the New York Bight (NYB). The NYB is adjacent to a wide, shallow continental shelf; on this coast, wind, large-scale shelf-wide circulation, and variable bathymetry all play roles in driving local circulation and dispersing the Hudson River plume ( Castelao et al. 2008 ; Chant et al

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Kevin Werner
and
Kristen Yeager

1. Introduction This paper describes the 2011 peak streamflows in the Colorado basin and the Great Basin in an attempt to illuminate the forecasting efforts of the NOAA Colorado Basin River Forecast Center (CBRFC). A recent National Research Council (2012) report highlighted the difficulties in transferring research results into operational river forecasting as a major impediment to improving forecasts. The primary goal of this paper is to highlight three areas where research is most needed

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Irena Ott
,
Doris Duethmann
,
Joachim Liebert
,
Peter Berg
,
Hendrik Feldmann
,
Juergen Ihringer
,
Harald Kunstmann
,
Bruno Merz
,
Gerd Schaedler
, and
Sven Wagner

especially flood discharges is important for the adaptation of existing and planning for future flood management. Whereas larger river systems in Europe and Germany have been widely studied (e.g., Kleinn et al. 2005 ; Dankers and Feyen 2008 ; Hurkmans et al. 2010 ), there is still a lack of information on climate change impacts on smaller rivers. Smaller catchments require higher spatial resolution of the driving atmospheric models, and with decreasing spatial extent the uncertainty of any climate

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Roy Barkan
,
James C. McWilliams
,
Alexander F. Shchepetkin
,
M. Jeroen Molemaker
,
Lionel Renault
,
Annalisa Bracco
, and
Jun Choi

, Luo et al. (2016 , hereinafter L16 ) suggested that the primary drivers of submesoscales in the De Soto Canyon region are the Loop Current eddies and the Mississippi–Atchafalaya River system (hereinafter rivers). They further argued that in winter when the mixed layer is deepest, submesoscales are generated primarily by frontogenesis and mixed layer instabilities, whereas during summer they are weaker than in winter and are associated with frontogenesis fueled by the horizontal density gradients

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Daniel G. Kingston
,
Glenn R. McGregor
,
David M. Hannah
, and
Damian M. Lawler

1. Introduction Understanding the climatic forcing of river flow represents a major research challenge of practical relevance, due to high socioeconomic and ecological dependence on water resources. This relevance is further enhanced in light of the pressing need to predict future water stress and risk within the context of climate change ( Houghton et al. 2001 ). Hydrologists have long been aware of the influence of climate on river flow, although traditional analyses rarely extended beyond

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Cédric H. David
,
David R. Maidment
,
Guo-Yue Niu
,
Zong-Liang Yang
,
Florence Habets
, and
Victor Eijkhout

1. Introduction Land surface models (LSMs) have been developed by the atmospheric science community to provide atmospheric models with bottom boundary conditions (water and energy balance) and to serve as the land base for hydrologic modeling. Over the past two decades, overland and subsurface runoff calculations done by LSMs have extensively been used to provide water inflow to river routing models that calculate river discharge ( De Roo et al. 2003 ; Habets et al. 1999a – c , 2008

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Pavla Pekarova
,
Dana Halmova
,
Pavol Miklanek
,
Milan Onderka
,
Jan Pekar
, and
Peter Skoda

basin). The temperature of the water in streams is more and more being influenced by human activities within basins—mainly due to the construction of water reservoirs, the erection of thermal and nuclear power plants, and the diversion of sewage into surface waters ( Stancikova and Capekova 1993 ). The first daily measurements of water temperatures of Slovakian streams and rivers were made in 1925. Measurements of water temperature in the Danube River at the Bratislava gauging station for a period

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