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Xi Chen, Yongqin David Chen, and Zhicai Zhang

1. Introduction In the highly populated Huaihe River plain region in China ( Fig. 1 ), human activities, especially agriculture, influence the hydrological processes, and water resources management must focus on sustainability, tracked based on an accurate understanding of water distribution and fluxes. In other words, water storage in and movement among all dynamically linked reservoirs must be estimated in order to evaluate water availability caused by human impact. This task of modeling the

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J. Li, X. Gao, and S. Sorooshian

1. Introduction Investigating river basin water cycles in the western U.S. mountainous region poses great challenges for the hydrology community because the region’s multiscale terrain leads to complex atmosphere–land surface interactions and makes it difficult to produce accurate observations. However, over the western United States, especially in the southwest semiarid region, the limited supply and increasing demand for water resources require accurate estimates of regional and local

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Kevin E. Trenberth, Lesley Smith, Taotao Qian, Aiguo Dai, and John Fasullo

1. Introduction Driven mainly by solar heating, water is evaporated from ocean and land surfaces, transported by winds, and condensed to form clouds and precipitation that falls to land and oceans. Precipitation over land may be stored temporarily as snow or soil moisture, while excess rainfall runs off and forms streams and rivers, which discharge the freshwater into the oceans, thereby completing the global water cycle ( Fig. 1 ). Associated with this water cycle, energy, salt within the

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Richard G. Lawford, John Roads, Dennis P. Lettenmaier, and Phillip Arkin

’s energy and water cycles. Through its Large-scale Biosphere–Atmosphere Experiment in Amazonia, GEWEX helped to validate the TRMM measurements over the Amazon River Basin. More broadly, GEWEX is working with IPWG and the Integrated Global Water Cycle Observations (IGWCO) theme of the Integrated Global Observing Strategy Partnership (IGOS-P) on a project being led by IPWG to develop an integrated precipitation product that would build on existing capabilities (e.g., GPCP products) but incorporate the

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Ana M. B. Nunes and John O. Roads

order” World Meteorological Organization (WMO) sites and the 24-h precipitation reports from the River Forecast Centers. This unified rain gauge dataset is available from 1948 to present. (iv) The University of New Hampshire runoff datasets The University of New Hampshire (UNH) Institute for the study of Earth, Ocean, and Space (EOS) provided the 0.5° resolution global runoff dataset used in this study; this dataset was available from January 1950 to December 2000 (courtesy of E. Douglas). These

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Guoxiong Wu, Yimin Liu, Qiong Zhang, Anmin Duan, Tongmei Wang, Rijin Wan, Xin Liu, Weiping Li, Zaizhi Wang, and Xiaoyun Liang

TIPEX, the Huaihe River Basin Experiment (HUBEX), the South China Sea Monsoon Experiments (SCSMEX), and GAME-Tibet and some radiosonde as well as wind profile observations from Thailand, India, and Vietnam. The results show that the discrepancy between the two datasets is small for the monthly mean time scale. Therefore in the following diagnoses when NCEP–NCAR reanalysis is employed, we confine ourselves to the investigations of large-scale and long-term monthly mean diabatic heating over the TP

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Scott Curtis, Ahmed Salahuddin, Robert F. Adler, George J. Huffman, Guojun Gu, and Yang Hong

and Barnett (1998) using the 75th percentile of daily rainfall to indicate frequency of heavy events, found ENSO signals in the Southeast, Gulf Coast, central Rockies, and the general area of the Mississippi–Ohio River valleys. In addition, ENSO appears to influence extreme events at the south coast of Alaska ( L’Heureux et al. 2004 ). The predictive skill of extreme precipitation over the contiguous United States is mostly attributed to ENSO ( Gershunov and Cayan 2003 ). Cavazos and Rivas (2004

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Xia Zhang, Shu Fen Sun, and Yongkang Xue

-conservative numerical solution for the unsaturated flow equation. Water Resour. Res. , 26 , 1483 – 1496 . 10.1029/WR026i007p01483 Cherkauer, K. A. , and Lettenmaier D. P. , 1999 : Hydrologic effects of frozen soils in the upper Mississippi River basin. J. Geophys. Res. , 104 , 19599 – 19610 . 10.1029/1999JD900337 Clapp, R. B. , and Hornberger G. M. , 1978 : Empirical equations for some soil hydraulic properties. Water Resour. Res. , 14 , 601 – 604 . 10.1029/WR014i004p00601 Cox, P. M. , Betts

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Jinwon Kim and Hyun-Suk Kang

-ridge moisture transport over the foothills and western slope of the Sierra Nevada could have contributed to heavy rainfall during an extreme precipitation event in February 1986 over the Feather River basin in the northern Sierra Nevada. Details of the impact of U p induced by the Sierra Nevada on precipitation according to large-scale inflow conditions, however, remain to be understood. The two components of terrain-induced wind disturbances, U p and U c , are related, and their occurrences and

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