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Robert A. Clark III, Zachary L. Flamig, Humberto Vergara, Yang Hong, Jonathan J. Gourley, Daniel J. Mandl, Stuart Frye, Matthew Handy, and Maria Patterson

Namibian portion of the Okavango River basin in the nation’s northeast ( Newsham and Thomas 2011 ). The north-central and northeast parts of the country have experienced severe flooding multiple times in the last decade; these floods have affected more than 100,000 people on multiple occasions ( Rukandema et al. 2009 ; Smith 2011 ). With much of the population dependent on agriculture, accurately monitoring water movement and storage at the surface and in the soils is critical for many Namibians

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Rahul S. Todmal

) has estimated an increase in frequency of drought over the semiarid regions of India (including the present study area). Moreover, the projected rise in temperature (by 1.5°–3°C) over Maharashtra is very likely to amplify drought intensity in the semiarid region, which may increase agrarian stress ( TERI 2014 ). On this background, the present study endeavors to evaluate the drought intensity and frequency over five semiarid river basins in Maharashtra. Additionally, with the use of projected data

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M. Issa Lélé, Lance M. Leslie, and Peter J. Lamb

equator in the Atlantic Ocean is the primary source of water vapor for the region. The mean southwest transport from these latitudes reaches a maximum around 12°N. It has a well-demarcated region of strong flow, referred to in this study as the “moisture river.” This strong flow originates from the equatorial South Atlantic, moves northeastward across the equator, passes over the Gulf of Guinea region, and then supplies moisture to the central Sudan region. The enhanced southwesterly transport is

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Wassila M. Thiaw and Vadlamani B. Kumar

in agricultural production and river flow. The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA)’s Climate Prediction Center (CPC) began to provide USAID FEWS with real-time gauge-based 10-day weather summaries to enable operational monitoring of crop conditions. However, given the difficulty to access rain gauge measurements from Africa, CPC also began to provide USAID FEWS with access to real-time satellite rainfall estimates to improve the weather summaries and to enable effective

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Mimi Stith, Alessandra Giannini, John del Corral, Susana Adamo, and Alex de Sherbinin

distributed in Mali and Niger than in Burkina Faso and Senegal, perhaps an artifact of région size. The majority of projects in Senegal are concentrated in the east, along the valley of the Senegal River, which flows from the highlands of Guinea and forms the border with Mali and Mauritania, though the région with the most projects is Kolda, in the south. The majority of projects in Burkina Faso are concentrated to the west and north of the capital, which lies at the center of the country, though the

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Zewdu T. Segele, Michael B. Richman, Lance M. Leslie, and Peter J. Lamb

. Zaitchik , and A. Dezfuli , 2014 : Subseasonal analysis of precipitation variability in the Blue Nile river basin . J. Climate , 27 , 325 – 344 , doi: 10.1175/JCLI-D-13-00094.1 . Block , P. , and B. Rajagopalan , 2007 : Interannual variability and ensemble forecast of Upper Blue Nile Basin Kiremt season precipitation . J. Hydrometeor., 8, 327–343 , doi: 10.1175/JHM580.1 . Bohn , T. J. , M. Y. Sonessa , and D. P. Lettenmaier , 2010 : Seasonal hydrologic forecasting: Do

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Susan Stillman, Xubin Zeng, and Michael G. Bosilovich

American Land Data Assimilation System OPI Outgoing Longwave Radiation (OLR) Precipitation Index PERSIANN Precipitation Estimation from Remotely Sensed Information Using Artificial Neural Networks PREC/L Precipitation Reconstruction over Land PRISM Parameter–Elevation Regressions on Independent Slopes Model RAWS Remote Automatic Weather Stations RFC River Forecast Center RFI Radio-frequency interference SMAP Soil Moisture Active Passive SMEX04 Soil Moisture Experiment 2004 SMOS Soil Moisture Ocean

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Thomas Engel, Andreas H. Fink, Peter Knippertz, Gregor Pante, and Jan Bliefernicht

: Water in a changing world. United Nations World Water Development Rep. 3, 318 pp., . Zulkafli , Z. , W. Buytaert , C. Onof , B. Manz , E. Tarnavsky , W. Lavado , and J.-L. Guyot , 2014 : Comparative performance analysis of TRMM 3B42 (TMPA) versions 6 and 7 for hydrological applications over Andean–Amazon River basins . J. Hydrometeor. , 15 , 581 – 592 , doi: 10.1175/JHM-D-13-094.1 . 10.1175/JHM-D-13-094.1 1 In 1932, the station

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