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Dmitry G. Chechin, Irina A. Makhotina, Christof Lüpkes, and Alexander P. Makshtas

1. Introduction The near-surface air temperature is one of the key observed meteorological parameters that reflects thermodynamics of the coupled atmosphere–sea ice system in the Arctic. An identification of physical processes that affect the near-surface temperature is crucial for understanding the observed climate change ( Vihma et al. 2014 ). This is a highly complex task since many interacting mechanisms are involved, but it can be simplified by considering specific thermal regimes over sea

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Brian E. J. Rose and John Marshall

(which here we suppose is sea ice) must be allowed to insulate the ocean from the atmosphere. Second, the ocean heat transport must exhibit some latitudinal structure with minima at which the ice edge is found to rest. We will discuss how such structure in ocean meridional energy transport might be expected to naturally arise as a consequence of, for example, wind-driven ocean gyres. The atmosphere and ocean play different roles in setting the sea ice edge. Studies of the modern climate indicate that

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Wenqi Zhang and Dehai Luo

1. Introduction In last three decades, the winter Arctic sea ice concentration (SIC) has been observed to undergo rapid decline over Barents–Kara Seas (BKS) and Baffin Bay, Davis Strait, and Labrador Sea (BDL) ( Parkinson et al. 1999 ; Rothrock et al. 1999 ; Wadhams and Davis 2000 ; Comiso 2006 ; Comiso et al. 2008 ; Perovich et al. 2018 ; Li et al. 2020 ). While the linkages of winter Eurasian midlatitude cold extremes with the BKS sea ice loss have been widely established in many

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Theodore J. Bennett Jr.

1456 JOURNAL OF THE ATMOSPHERIC SCIENCES VOLUME39A Coupled Atmosphere-Sea Ice Model Study of the Role of Sea Ice in Climatic Predictability THEODORE J. BENNETT, JR.Institute of ,4tmospheric Physics, University of ~drizona, Tucson 85721(Manuscript received 24 November 1981, in final form 29 March 1982)ABSTRACT The potential role of early autumn sea ice extent as a predictor of

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Daniel Enderton and John Marshall

climate. Therefore, to avoid the generation of excessively strong barotropic zonal flows, we employ an enhanced bottom friction (linear drag) parameter that is tuned to damp abyssal currents toward zero. Convection is represented through enhanced vertical mixing, which is treated implicitly as described in Klinger et al. (1996) . A two-layer thermodynamic sea ice model based on Winton (2000) is used. The whole system is integrated forward on the cubed sphere ( Adcroft et al. 2004 ) at a horizontal

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Dorian S. Abbot and Eli Tziperman

Tziperman 2008b , hereafter AT08b ; Abbot et al. 2008, manuscript submitted to J. Climate, hereafter AWT) because during summer marine boundary layer clouds block low-level atmospheric solar absorption, so that solar absorption occurs preferentially in the midtroposphere and stabilizes the lower atmosphere. The convective cloud feedback as outlined in AT08b and AWT is intimately tied to sea ice, which insulates the ocean and prevents convection when it is present, whereas the feedback prevents the

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Edgar L. Andreas and Stephen F. Ackley

440JOURNAL OF THE ATMOSPHERIC SCIENCESVOLUME 39On the Differences in Ablation Seasons of Arctic and Antarctic Sea Ice EDGAR L. ANDREAS A~qD STEPHEN F. ACKLEYU.S. /Irmy Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory, Hanover, NH 057.~5(Manuscript received 26 May 1981, in final form 30 September 1981)ABSTRACT Arctic sea ice is freckled with melt ponds during the ablation season; Antarctic sea ice has. few, if any.On the basis of a simple surface heat budget, we investigate the

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G. G. Carrió, H. Jiang, and W. R. Cotton

1. Introduction Changes in the Arctic sea ice could potentially alter global climate via changes in the thermohaline circulation and the location of storm tracks ( Royer et al. 1990 ; Alexander et al. 2004 ). The presence or absence of clouds has a large impact on this critical component of the climate system that strongly influences albedo, and the surface heat and momentum fluxes ( Maykut and Understeiner 1971 ). In particular, low-level cloudiness exerts a strong influence on the surface

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Seymour J. Birstein and Charles E. Anderson

, covered with sea-salt crystals; theaerosol produced in this manner was injected intoa low-temperature cryostat containing a supercooledcloud. The appearance of ice crystals was marked bythe characteristic twinkling scintillations reported byothers.Because of the possibility that sea salt might decompose at elevated temperatures and give a productgreatly different from the starting material, nucleiwere also prepared by mechanically grinding a sampleof sea salt produced by the low

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Christina S. McCluskey, Thomas C. J. Hill, Francesca Malfatti, Camille M. Sultana, Christopher Lee, Mitchell V. Santander, Charlotte M. Beall, Kathryn A. Moore, Gavin C. Cornwell, Douglas B. Collins, Kimberly A. Prather, Thilina Jayarathne, Elizabeth A. Stone, Farooq Azam, Sonia M. Kreidenweis, and Paul J. DeMott

supercooled liquid ( Vali et al. 2015 )] ranging from 3 to 250 m −3 (median 14 m −3 ) over the Southern Ocean ( Bigg 1973 ). More recently, DeMott et al. (2015) compared number concentrations and surface site densities of aerosols observed in some marine environments with laboratory studies where generated sea spray was the only INP source. Their data suggest that marine INPs are distinctly less efficient than land-sourced INPs such that the ice nucleating ability of marine aerosol needs to be

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