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Yi-Ching Chung, Stéphane Bélair, and Jocelyn Mailhot

fluxes, and rate due to blowing snow in the boundary layer, but very few have distinguished the effect of blowing snow on the seasonal evolution of snow and sea ice. Meanwhile, the significance of blowing snow sublimation has been argued in some studies (e.g., Steffen and DeMaria 1996 ; Papakyriakou 1999 ; Pomeroy and Essery 1999 ; Pomeroy and Li 2000 ; Persson et al. 2002 ; Savelyev et al. 2006 ). The main objective of this study is to investigate the effect of blowing snow on the simulation

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Yi-Ching Chung, Stéphane Bélair, and Jocelyn Mailhot

1. Introduction As part of the Arctic system, snow-covering sea ice has long been recognized to be crucial in coupled ocean–ice–atmosphere models ( Maykut and Untersteiner 1971 ; Ledley 1991 ; Ebert and Curry 1993 ). Snow mainly has two large but opposite effects on the energy and mass balance of the ice floe in the Arctic Ocean. The first effect is related to the snow high albedo, which leads to significant solar radiation reflection back to the atmosphere, delaying the spring snowmelt

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Edgar L. Andreas, P. Ola G. Persson, Andrey A. Grachev, Rachel E. Jordan, Thomas W. Horst, Peter S. Guest, and Christopher W. Fairall

1. Introduction The turbulent momentum flux from the atmosphere to compact sea ice forces the ice to move and, in turn, drives ocean currents. It also creates pressure ridges where the ice converges, opens leads where the ice diverges, and redistributes deposited snow through blowing and drifting. The turbulent surface fluxes of sensible and latent heat, in contrast, are typically secondary terms to the radiative components in the surface energy budget of sea ice (e.g., Jordan et al. 1999

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Sebastian H. Mernild, Glen E. Liston, Christopher A. Hiemstra, and Jens H. Christensen

1. Introduction The Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS) is the Northern Hemisphere’s largest terrestrial permanent ice- and snow-covered area and a reservoir of water, from a hydrological perspective (e.g., Box et al. 2006 ; Fettweis 2007 ; Richter-Menge et al. 2007 ; Mernild et al. 2008d , 2009a , b ), containing between 7.0-m and 7.4-m global sea level equivalent (SLE) ( Warrick and Oerlemans 1990 ; Gregory et al. 2004 ; Lemke et al. 2007 ). It is essential to predict and assess the impact of

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Ayumi Fujisaki-Manome, Greg E. Mann, Eric J. Anderson, Philip Y. Chu, Lindsay E. Fitzpatrick, Stanley G. Benjamin, Eric P. James, Tatiana G. Smirnova, Curtis R. Alexander, and David M. Wright

Alamos Sea Ice Model (UG-CICE; Gao et al. 2011 ; Hunke et al. 2015 ) and the unstructured grid Finite Volume Community Ocean Model (FVCOM; Chen et al. 2006 , 2013 ). The model is driven by prescribed surface meteorology from HRRR forecasts. Given that both HRRR and GLOFS provide operational NOAA forecasts, linking these weather, ice, and hydrodynamic models is one way to enable the modeling suite to exchange rapidly changing lake-surface conditions during LES events; thereby improving forecast

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Edgar L. Andreas, Rachel E. Jordan, and Aleksandr P. Makshtas

1. Introduction Late in the drift of Ice Station Weddell, seawater began seeping into our instrument hut. This flooding was an unpleasant reminder of the main difference between Arctic sea ice and Antarctic sea ice: Even the perennial sea ice in the western Weddell Sea, where we had deployed Ice Station Weddell (ISW), is much thinner than perennial Arctic sea ice. The weight of our meteorological hut and the drifting snow that had accumulated around it eventually depressed the sea ice surface

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Ryan Gonzalez and Christian D. Kummerow

12-channel, six-frequency, conically scanning, passive microwave radiometer aboard NASA’s Aqua spacecraft. AMSR-E operated from 2002 to 2011 in a sun-synchronous polar orbit with equator overpass times of 0130 and 1330 UTC. The instrument measures microwave TBs between 7 and 89 GHz from the natural emission of microwave radiation by the underlying surface and atmosphere. Geophysical variables related to Earth’s surface and water cycle, such as sea surface winds, sea surface temperature, sea ice

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Alejandro Hermoso, Victor Homar, and Arnau Amengual

influence of SST on the thermodynamic environment and moisture availability, a set of experiments with a uniform change in SST is designed. Experiment labeled as SST − 1 features a sea surface temperature 1°C lower than the analysis used in CNTL from ECMWF. This SST analysis field is taken from the global, high-resolution, operational sea surface temperature and sea ice analysis system (OSTIA; Stark et al. 2007 ; Mogensen et al. 2012 ). Analogously, a positive perturbation is introduced in the SST + 1

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Mohammad Reza Ehsani, Ali Behrangi, Abishek Adhikari, Yang Song, George J. Huffman, Robert F. Adler, David T. Bolvin, and Eric J. Nelkin

1. Introduction Quantifying high-latitude precipitation is critical to understanding the current state of Earth’s climate, and for water and energy cycle analysis. Precipitation retrieval in high latitudes is also important because snow in the form of the snowpack is a major source of freshwater for many countries including the United States. Furthermore, knowing the snowfall amount on sea ice is essential to derive sea ice thickness from spaceborne altimeters ( Kwok and Markus 2018 ; Song et

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Kalimur Rahman and Firat Y. Testik

black-ice formation, power outages due to power lines broken by the added ice weight, airflow alteration in the aircraft wings due to the added ice load, which eventually increases drag and alters the aerodynamic lift, damages to the aircraft engines due to break off of the icicle formations (e.g., Symons and Perry 1997 ; Rauber et al. 2000 ; Jung et al. 2012 ). Similarly, aircraft ground-based deicing fluids may have functional issues due to the presence of frozen raindrops (FAA Notice N 8000

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