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Ya Yang, Xiang Li, Jing Wang, and Dongliang Yuan

the NESC have not been adequately explored so far. The seasonal variability of the Pacific equatorial subsurface currents has been studied by Lukas and Firing (1985) , Kessler and McCreary (1993) , and Marin et al. (2010) , showing that the annual reversal of the Equatorial Intermediate Current is controlled by vertical propagation of baroclinic Rossby waves. Using Argo parking depth trajectory measurements, Cravatte et al. (2012) showed that the largely one cycle per year variations of the

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Hironari Kanamori, Tomo’omi Kumagai, Hatsuki Fujinami, Tetsuya Hiyama, and Tetsuzo Yasunari

Yasunari 2008 ). It is interesting to note that the strength of the seasonality of both P and C for all domains in Fig. 4 depends on the combined effects of large-scale circulations, for example, the positions of both the ITCZ and the SPCZ, and the northeasterly winter monsoon. Fig . 4. Climatological (1998–2012) mean monthly precipitation P , moisture flux convergence C , temporal change in precipitable water content W (mm day −1 ), and LWUR (%) over (a) BOL, (b) NGL, (c) BOC, (d) NGC, and

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Casey D. Burleyson, Samson M. Hagos, Zhe Feng, Brandon W. J. Kerns, and Daehyun Kim

. The MJO exhibits a pronounced seasonal cycle; the main convective envelope associated with the MJO detours the MC southward during boreal winter while the MJO propagates primarily north of the MC during boreal summer ( Zhang and Dong 2004 ). While the mechanism for the southward and northward detouring of the MJO around the MC has been studied ( Adames et al. 2016 ; Kim et al. 2017 ), the possible differences in the MC barrier effects between the two seasons has not been fully explored. We aim to

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Wan-Ling Tseng, Huang-Hsiung Hsu, Noel Keenlyside, Chiung-Wen June Chang, Ben-Jei Tsuang, Chia-Ying Tu, and Li-Chiang Jiang

complex land–sea contrast and orography in the MC also exerts effects on the prominent tropical phenomenon such as the Madden–Julian oscillation (MJO), an intraseasonal fluctuation ( Madden and Julian 1972 ; Zhang 2005 ), during its passage through the MC ( Hsu and Lee 2005 ; Inness and Slingo 2006 ; Wu and Hsu 2009 ; Sobel et al. 2010 ; Oh et al. 2012 , 2013 ; Birch et al. 2016 ; Hagos et al. 2016 ; Kim et al. 2017 ; Zhang and Ling 2017 ). Matthews (2000) and Hsu and Lee (2005) reveal

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Jieshun Zhu, Arun Kumar, and Wanqiu Wang

1. Introduction There has been growing interest in forecasts at subseasonal time scales (i.e., 3–4 weeks; National Research Council 2010 ; National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine 2016 ), which fills the gap between medium-range weather forecast and seasonal prediction. The Madden–Julian oscillation (MJO; Madden and Julian 1971 ), the primary mode of tropical intraseasonal climate variability in the boreal winter and spring, is considered to be a major source of global

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Casey R. Densmore, Elizabeth R. Sanabia, and Bradford S. Barrett

at each level from 1000 and 10 hPa. All anomalies are calculated as deviations from the climatological mean (defined as a 31-day sliding window) from 1980 to 2017. Static stability is calculated as follows: where g is the gravitational constant (9.8 m s −2 ), is the potential temperature (K), and is the change in potential temperature with height (K m −1 ; Stull 1995 ). To consider potential seasonality of the QBO–MJO relationship, MJO amplitude change and QBO effects on zonal wind shear

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Kevin E. Trenberth and Yongxin Zhang

. The melting and thawing of sea ice were approximately accounted for. Not properly dealt with were the changes in runoff from land, although the 12-month running mean removes most of those effects. For the Pacific, we integrated southward from the Bering Strait, where through transports are small enough to be neglected, but could be considered. However, the Indian and Pacific Oceans were combined because of their connection through the Indonesian region, called the Indonesian Throughflow (ITF). In

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Ewan Short, Claire L. Vincent, and Todd P. Lane

vary both seasonally and intraseasonally is therefore required. Rauniyar and Walsh (2011) argued that the MJO affects diurnal cycles of surface winds through changes to surface heating, with reduced cloud cover during convectively suppressed phases increasing the amount of solar radiation that reaches the surface, thus strengthening the land–sea breezes, with subsequent effects on the diurnal precipitation cycle. However, Peatman et al. (2014) showed that although the diurnal cycle of

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Chu-Chun Chen, Min-Hui Lo, Eun-Soon Im, Jin-Yi Yu, Yu-Chiao Liang, Wei-Ting Chen, Iping Tang, Chia-Wei Lan, Ren-Jie Wu, and Rong-You Chien

1. Introduction Anthropogenic land use and land cover changes, especially deforestation, can have substantial effects on the local and remote climate. For instance, deforestation can directly alter the partitioning of local surface energy and the water budget, leading to changes in precipitation (e.g., Zeng and Neelin 1999 ; Pielke et al. 2007 ; Mahmood et al. 2014 ; Lawrence and Vandecar 2015 ). Tropical rain forests have lower albedos, larger leaf and stem areas for evapotranspiration

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Dongliang Yuan, Xiang Li, Zheng Wang, Yao Li, Jing Wang, Ya Yang, Xiaoyue Hu, Shuwen Tan, Hui Zhou, Adhitya Kusuma Wardana, Dewi Surinati, Adi Purwandana, Mochamad Furqon Azis Ismail, Praditya Avianto, Dirham Dirhamsyah, Zainal Arifin, and Jin-Song von Storch

( https://verc.enes.org/storm ). Eighty vertical layers from the sea surface to 6038.5 m are used in the vertical. The model was spun up for 25 years using the German Ocean Model Intercomparison Project (OMIP) forcing derived from the 15-yr ERA data and then forced by the 6-hourly NCEP–NCAR reanalysis data from 1948 to present. 3. Observed currents in the Maluku Channel The current data at the center of the Maluku Channel (M00) show a prominent seasonal cycle in the upper ocean above approximately the

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