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Mark S. Kulie, Lisa Milani, Norman B. Wood, Samantha A. Tushaus, Ralf Bennartz, and Tristan S. L’Ecuyer

in the Northern Hemisphere because of both the higher likelihood of snowfall and increased CloudSat sampling at poleward latitudes (not shown). Localized snowfall count maxima exceeding 5000 counts also occur in some other regions away from higher latitudes (e.g., Southern Hemispheric oceans, North Atlantic Ocean, western Pacific Ocean, Canadian–Alaskan Pacific coastline, southern Greenland, and continental Asia). CloudSat sampling gaps equatorward of ~50° in both hemispheres also exist

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Toshi Matsui, Jiun-Dar Chern, Wei-Kuo Tao, Stephen Lang, Masaki Satoh, Tempei Hashino, and Takuji Kubota

frequencies for each category averaged over the 14-yr period by constructing the Tb IR – H ET diagram at each 2.5° × 2° grid. Thus, frequencies of five categories are summed up to 100% on each grid box. Shallow warm is the dominant precipitating cloud category over the southern portion of the Indian Ocean and the eastern portions of the Pacific and Atlantic Oceans. The total precipitation rate as well as the proportion of precipitating columns in these regions is very small, since most of these low

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Chris Kidd, Toshihisa Matsui, Jiundar Chern, Karen Mohr, Chris Kummerow, and Dave Randel

the Southern Ocean, and in particular over the South Pacific Ocean around 30°S between 150° and 120°W; here the MHS produces a maxima on the order of ~8 mm day −1 , whereas the CS retrievals show a less clearly defined maxima of ~6 mm day −1 to the northwest. These differences are also evident in the latitudinal profiles shown in Fig. 11 , which also highlights the widespread differences between the XT and CS estimates over the Southern Hemisphere south of 30°S. If the estimates from the DPR are

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Ali Behrangi, Bin Guan, Paul J. Neiman, Mathias Schreier, and Bjorn Lambrigtsen

that satellite products are fairly consistent in quantifying mean precipitation rate over ocean, although there is a large discrepancy to the west of Washington and southern British Columbia for the north coast results. Over the ocean, PERSIANN represents generally lower mean precipitation rates than the other products, especially in north ( Fig. 2 , middle) where CMORPH, T3B42, and T3B42RT are higher than both CCS and PERSIANN. Over land, the bias-adjusted T3B42 product shows a fairly good

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F. Joseph Turk, R. Sikhakolli, P. Kirstetter, and S. L. Durden

-beam OceanSat-2 scatterometer (OSCAT) are studied for their sensitivity to globally capturing and tracking short-period rain events. Active radar backscatter measurements are less sensitive to the surface temperature, but more affected by surface roughness and length scales, which change over longer time scales than the diurnally fluctuating surface temperature. Designed to capture small signals arising from ocean wind direction asymmetry, a scatterometer is by necessity very stable and well calibrated, to

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E. Cattani, A. Merino, and V. Levizzani

. 2. East Africa: Topography and climate The area examined in this work extends between 5°S and 20°N and 28° and 52°E, including southern Sudan, Eritrea, Djibouti, Ethiopia, Somalia, Kenya, Uganda, and northern Tanzania. A very complex geography characterizes a region shaped by the friction between tectonic plates, which generated the Great Rift Valley, one of Africa’s best-known geological features ( Fig. 1 ; UNEP 2008 ). The Rift Valley extends over 5500 km, from the Red Sea’s junction with the

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Abebe Sine Gebregiorgis, Pierre-Emmanuel Kirstetter, Yang E. Hong, Nicholas J. Carr, Jonathan J. Gourley, Walt Petersen, and Yaoyao Zheng

. 2014 ; Huffman et al. 2015 ). The CloudSat radar observes the cloud condensate and precipitation ( Stephens et al. 2002 ). Alternatively, most spaceborne precipitation estimation relies upon passive sensors, which provide more indirect information than either gauges or radar but have the advantage of complete coverage in remote regions such as over oceans, mountainous regions, and sparsely populated areas where other sources of precipitation data are not available. Consequently, satellite

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