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Amanda Markert
,
Robert Griffin
,
Kevin Knupp
,
Andrew Molthan
, and
Tim Coleman

topography and vegetation, posing questions on how the lowest several hundred meters of the atmosphere, that is, the surface layer to lower boundary layer are influenced by horizontal gradients in the land surface roughness and how the tornadogenesis process may be affected. Figure 1. Tornado-track density for all EF0–EF5 tornadoes that occurred across counties intersecting the ARMOR coverage area from 1950 to 2014. This map reveals two areas with high frequencies of tornado occurrences for a given area

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Olivia Kellner
and
Dev Niyogi

.1.1. Tornado day and daily temporal distributions A tornado day climatology for 1950–2012 is completed for Indiana for all tornadoes (F0–F5), weak tornadoes (F0–F1), and strong tornadoes (F2–F5). A tornado day in this study is developed from the definition proposed in Changnon and Schickedanz ( Changnon and Schickedanz 1969 ) and equates a tornado day as a day with at least one tornado report (see also Shepherd et al. 2009 ). This provides an idea of how many days are favorable for tornadogenesis in a

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P. Grady Dixon
,
Andrew E. Mercer
,
Katarzyna Grala
, and
William H. Cooke

in question. This yields a different “ideal” bandwidth for each season. This analysis was also performed using only tornado initiation points for the purpose of future studies that are more interested in tornadogenesis rather than tornado paths and impacts. The second method restricts the spatial analysis of each season to those states with the greatest tornado density. Moran’s I cannot be calculated at radii smaller than the distance between any two points, so spatial outliers have the potential

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