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Harald Sodemann

, lifetime and turnover time have so far mostly been used interchangeably, a distinction as in other scientific disciplines ( McGuire and McDonnell 2006 ) seems valuable, as shown below. Fig . 1. Water vapor age and lifetime calculation for a homogeneous, stationary system. (a) Illustration of the budget of the atmospheric water content W with flux components evaporation E and precipitation P . Feathered arrows indicate that it is equally likely to have contributions from all parts of the atmosphere

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Amy Solomon, Matthew D. Shupe, Ola Persson, Hugh Morrison, Takanobu Yamaguchi, Peter M. Caldwell, and Gijs de Boer

energy budget terms ( Herman and Goody 1976 ; Curry and Ebert 1992 ; Schweiger and Key 1994 ; Zhang et al. 1996 ; Walsh and Chapman 1998 ; Intrieri et al. 2002 ; Shupe and Intrieri 2004 ; Inoue et al. 2006 ; Shupe et al. 2013 ). For example, Zuidema et al. (2005) estimated that a springtime AMPS observed during SHEBA had a net surface cloud forcing of 41 W m −2 due to the presence of cloud water, which increased cloud emissivity and, thus, downwelling longwave radiation ( Sun and Shine

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Pascal Marquet

. Riehl , H. , and J. S. Malkus , 1958 : On the heat balance in the equatorial trough zone . Geophysica , 6 , 503 – 538 . Romps , D. M. , 2008 : The dry-entropy budget of a moist atmosphere . J. Atmos. Sci. , 65 , 3779 – 3799 , doi: 10.1175/2008JAS2679.1 . Romps , D. M. , 2015 : MSE minus CAPE is the true conserved variable for an adiabatically lifted parcel . J. Atmos. Sci. , 72 , 3639 – 3646 , doi: 10.1175/JAS-D-15-0054.1 . Romps , D. M. , and Z. Kuang , 2010 : Do

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Max Popp, Hauke Schmidt, and Jochem Marotzke

about detrained water to the cloud-microphysical scheme, cloud condensate is created or destroyed by the cloud microphysical scheme only. 3) Convection ECHAM6 uses a mass flux scheme for cumulus convection ( Tiedtke 1989 ), with modifications for penetrative convection according to Nordeng (1994) . The contribution of cumulus convection to the large-scale budgets of heat, moisture, and momentum is represented by an ensemble of clouds consisting of updrafts and downdrafts in a steady state

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Andrew J. Heymsfield, Carl Schmitt, Chih-Chieh-Jack Chen, Aaron Bansemer, Andrew Gettelman, Paul R. Field, and Chuntao Liu

1. Introduction The phase of clouds and precipitation, whether it be liquid and/or ice, has far-reaching implications for Earth’s energy budget, convective instability, and surface water supply. Major recent advances in understanding the energy budget, and the occurrence of the ice phase, have been provided by satellite data and globally gridded reanalyses (e.g., Trenberth et al. 2001 ; Trenberth and Stepaniak 2003a , b ; Mülmenstädt et al. 2015 ). It is well known that the ice phase has a

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Robert G. Gallimore

theseparate budgets for atmospheric energy and watervapor and the energy balance at the earth's surface.Specific parameterizations include 1) an explicit hyc 1983 American Meteorological Society40 JOURNAL Ob THE ATMOSPHERIC sCIENCES VOLUME40drologic cycle with the model water vapor used insolar absorption and longwave emission calculations;2) separate computations of evaporation, sensibleheating and albedo

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Michio Yanai, Steven Esbensen, and Jan-Hwa Chu

, the excess temperature, andmoisture and the liquid water content of the clouds, are determined from a combination of 1) the observedlarge-scale heat and moisture budgets over an area covering the cloud cluster, and 2) a model of a cumulusensemble which exchanges mass, heat, water vapor and liquid water with the environment through entrainment and detrainment. The method also provides an understanding of how the environmental air is heatedand moistened by the cumulus convection. An estimate of the

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Shouping Wang, Qing Wang, and Graham Feingold

decomposed into mean saturation and turbulence parts; the former is directly computed from the ensemble mean supersaturation and the latter comes from the covariance R ′ S ′ . The turbulence contribution increases the mean CE rate by enhancing condensation in supersaturated regions ( S > 0) and reducing evaporation in subsaturated regions ( S < 0). The dominant component of the turbulence contribution is the covariance N ′ S ′ . For the liquid water flux budget, a close balance is reached between the

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Bart Geerts and Peter V. Hobbs

CFA interacted dynamically with the planetary boundary layer, not only throughcooling produced by evaporating hydrometeors but also by a shallow downdraft immediately to the rear of therainshaft associated with the rainband. This study shows that the combined thermodynamic and cloud microphysical retrieval technique is a usefultool in analyzing force balances and assessing water and energy budgets, even in quite weak mesoscale precipitationsystems.1. Introduction In the first part of this

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Scott A. Braun

. The dominant terms in the vapor budget were the total advection (horizontal plus vertical) and the condensation. The total advection consisted of strong horizontal import of moisture at low levels and upward transport at midlevels. The water supplied by moisture convergence and surface evaporation was mostly removed by condensation. An area of negative advection in outer regions in the boundary layer caused by subsidence of dry air was partially offset by evaporation from the ocean, similar to the

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