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Keyhan Gavahi, Peyman Abbaszadeh, Hamid Moradkhani, Xiwu Zhan, and Christopher Hain

1. Introduction Climate extremes such as droughts and floods are becoming more severe and frequent, causing unprecedented threats to food and water security ( Hameed et al. 2019 ; Alipour et al. 2020 ; Rammig et al. 2020 ). Drought is a natural climate extreme occurring in virtually all climatic zones. Drought is considered to be a complex phenomenon classified into four major types including meteorological, agricultural, hydrological, and socioeconomic drought. Among these four types

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Shanshui Yuan, Steven M. Quiring, and Chen Zhao

). Wang et al. (2015) identified two main categories of drought indices: those that are purely based on statistical probability, such as the standardized precipitation index (SPI; McKee et al. 1993 ), and those that are based on a combination of a water balance model and statistical probability, such as the Palmer drought severity index (PDSI; Palmer 1965 ). The various drought indices do not always agree regarding the degree of dryness/wetness because each index is designed for a different purpose

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Richard Seager, Jennifer Nakamura, and Mingfang Ting

precipitation, circulation, water vapor transports and SSTs. All onsets and terminations were associated with northerly and southerly flows, respectively, and associated anomalous moisture exports and imports. However, SNT also found that the flow anomalies occurred within a variety of hemispheric scale circulation anomaly patterns. SNT further found that these DO&Ts and driving circulation anomalies were not consistently related to SST anomalies that might provide predictability on seasonal time scales

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Kingtse C. Mo and Dennis P Lettenmaier

variables such as downward solar and longwave radiation, humidity, and wind using methods described by Bohn et al. (2013) . We used retrospective forcings from the near-real-time University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) surface water monitor, which were derived from roughly 2400 index stations across the conterminous United States (CONUS) using procedures outlined in Wood and Lettenmaier (2006) . The 10-m wind speed was taken from the Climate Data Assimilation System (CDAS; Kalnay et al. 1996

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