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A. Gettelman and Q. Fu

1. Introduction The largest uncertainty in predicting the future state of the atmosphere lies in properly estimating the internal changes to the climate system in response to a radiative perturbation ( Cess et al. 1989 ; Cess 2005 ). The impact of these internal changes, commonly called feedbacks on the climate system, can be as large as the primary forcing signal. Perhaps the most important feedback in the earth’s climate system is the climate feedback due to upper-tropospheric water vapor (H

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De-Zheng Sun, Yongqiang Yu, and Tao Zhang

1. Introduction Water vapor provides most of the greenhouse effect of the earth’s atmosphere. Clouds are a major contributor to the planetary albedo ( Kiehl and Trenberth 1997 ). A small change in these radiative effects of water vapor and clouds can either offset or greatly amplify the perturbation to the earth’s radiation balance from anthropogenic effects ( Houghton et al. 2001 ). Therefore, it is imperative for climate models on which our economical polices are increasingly relying to

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Tapio Schneider, Karen L. Smith, Paul A. O’Gorman, and Christopher C. Walker

, P. Kållberg , and P. Undén , 1999 : Stratospheric water vapour and tropical tropopause temperatures in ECMWF analyses and multi-year simulations. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc. , 125 , 353 – 386 . Soden , B. J. , 1998 : Tracking upper tropospheric water vapor radiances: A satellite perspective. J. Geophys. Res. , 103D , 17069 – 17081 . Sudradjat , A. , R. R. Ferraro , and M. Fiorino , 2005 : A comparison of total precipitable water between reanalyses and NVAP. J

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Zhongyin Cai and Lide Tian

; Trenberth 1997 ). In general, the warm phase (El Niño) of ENSO triggers the weakening of the Walker circulation and drier conditions in the western Pacific and South Asia. In contrast, the cold phase (La Niña) is marked by stronger rainfall in these regions. In addition, water vapor from the Indian Ocean is the major source of summer [June–September (JJAS)] monsoonal rainfall, which dominates the precipitation pattern in southeastern Asia (e.g., An et al. 2015 ; Ding and Chan 2005 ; Wang and LinHo

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Biao Wang, Teruyuki Nakajima, and Guangyu Shi

1. Introduction Climate change can be considered the response of the climate system to external forcings, such as radiative forcing resulting from greenhouse gases (GHGs), atmospheric aerosols, etc. While the understanding of the external forcings remains with uncertainties, the response of the system is largely complicated by a variety of feedback processes, especially those involving clouds and water vapor (CWV) in the atmosphere. Water vapor is an important greenhouse gas and clouds have a

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Sibylle Vey, Reinhard Dietrich, Axel Rülke, Mathias Fritsche, Peter Steigenberger, and Markus Rothacher

1. Introduction Atmospheric water vapor significantly influences many processes of the earth’s weather and climate. Water vapor is one of the main variables controlling the greenhouse effect and it plays a crucial role in the global energy cycle. Accurate knowledge of the water vapor distribution in the atmosphere and its change with time is indispensable for the description and understanding of global climate processes. In contrast to other greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide or methane

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Neil F. Tandon, Lorenzo M. Polvani, and Sean M. Davis

stratospheric water vapor changes on the tropospheric circulation . Geophys. Res. Lett. , 33 , L09806 , doi:10.1029/2006GL025983 . Lorenz , D. J. , and E. T. DeWeaver , 2007 : Tropopause height and zonal wind response to global warming in the IPCC scenario integrations . J. Geophys. Res. , 112 , D10119 , doi:10.1029/2006JD008087 . Maycock , A. C. , K. P. Shine , and M. M. Joshi , 2011 : The temperature response to stratospheric water vapour changes . Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc

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Joseph Galewsky and Kimberly Samuels-Crow

question revolves around the processes that transport moist air to the southern South American Altiplano during the austral summer. Paleoclimate indicators show that the subtropical Andes were likely moister in the past, even sustaining glaciers at sites that are far too dry to support glaciers in the modern climate ( Kull and Grosjean 2000 ; Ammann et al. 2001 ). The water vapor transport processes that supported the development of glaciers in the past, and how those processes may change as the

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Qingzhi Zhao, Xiongwei Ma, Wanqiang Yao, Yang Liu, and Yibin Yao

.jastp.2018.06.016 . 10.1016/j.jastp.2018.06.016 Zhao , Q. , X. Ma , W. Yao , Y. Liu , Z. Du , P. Yang , and Y. Yao , 2019a : Improved drought monitoring index using GNSS-derived precipitable water vapor over the loess plateau area . Sensors , 19 , 5566 , https://doi.org/10.3390/s19245566 . 10.3390/s19245566 Zhao , Q. , Y. Yao , and W. Yao , 2019b : Studies of precipitable water vapour characteristics on a global scale . Int. J. Remote Sens. , 40 , 72 – 88 , https

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Spencer K. Clark, Yi Ming, Isaac M. Held, and Peter J. Phillipps

GCMs, complete with water vapor (WV) and cloud feedbacks, and idealized moist GCMs, without water vapor or cloud feedbacks. In each study, the ITCZ latitude was more sensitive to a given asymmetry strength in the comprehensive aquaplanet GCM than in the idealized moist GCM. In addition, in the comprehensive GCM, an asymmetry imposed in the extratropics was more effective at shifting the ITCZ than an asymmetry imposed in the tropics, but the opposite was true in the idealized GCM. Voigt et al. (2014

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