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Enver Ramirez, Pedro L. da Silva Dias, and Carlos F. M. Raupp

( Longuet-Higgins et al. 1967 ; Domaracki and Loesch 1977 ; Majda et al. 1999 ; Holm and Lynch 2002 ; Raupp and Silva Dias 2009 ; Ripa 1982 , 1983a , b ). The present study applies both multiscale methods and nonlinear wave interaction theory to formulate a model capable of describing scale interactions in a simplified coupled atmosphere–ocean system. The multiscale method adopted here is similar to that adopted by Majda and Klein (2003) for the atmosphere. Thus, our approach can be regarded as

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William L. Donn and William T. McGuinness

OCTOBER 1960WILLIAM L. DONN AND WILLIAM T. McGUINNESSAIR-COUPLED LONG WAVES IN THE OCEAN'William L. Donn and William T. McGuinnessLamont Geological Observatory, Columbia University (Manuscript received 13 February 1960)ABSTRACTAn IGY tsunami recorder at Texas Tower No. 4 off New York has detected ocean waves of periods from 4to 10 min which have amplitudes up to 100 times greater than atmospheric pressure oscillations whichoccurred simultaneously. The latter are shown to be pressure

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G. P. Klaassen

1. Introduction At scales appropriate for internal gravity waves, Eulerian spectra of temperature and horizontal velocity perturbations in the ocean and middle atmosphere exhibit nearly universal shapes ( Garrett and Munk 1975 ; Gargett et al. 1981 ; VanZandt 1982 ; Smith et al. 1987 ). At large vertical wavenumbers m , the average power spectral density (PSD) of horizontal Eulerian wind fluctuations in the atmosphere conforms to the power law E u ( m ) = αN   2 m −3 , where N is the

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J. Vanneste

1. Introduction The atmosphere and oceans are typical examples of two-time-scale systems. As a result of fast rotation and strong stratification, their dynamics can be separated into a slow, or balanced, part evolving on an advective time scale L / U , and a fast part consisting of inertia–gravity waves (IGWs) evolving on time scales shorter than the inertial period f   −1 . Thus, the Rossby number which gives an estimate of the time-scale separation between the two types of motion, is

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Shuyi S. Chen, Wei Zhao, Mark A. Donelan, and Hendrik L. Tolman

induce complex wave fields that may result in wave-induced stress misaligned with the winds. The rapid increase in computer power and recent advances in technology in observations have made it possible for us to develop a new generation of high-resolution, coupled atmosphere–wave–ocean hurricane prediction models that are capable of representing the complex sea states with explicit coupling to ocean surface waves in high-wind conditions ( Sullivan and McWilliams 2010 ). We begin by developing and

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Peter P. Sullivan, James B. Edson, Tihomir Hristov, and James C. McWilliams

platforms, datasets, and preliminary analysis is given by Edson et al. (2007) . CBLAST was a major field campaign designed to investigate boundary layer processes that couple the atmosphere, wave field, and ocean under a variety of low to moderate wind conditions. The site for CBLAST is the Atlantic Ocean south of Martha’s Vineyard, Massachusetts, and intensive observation periods occurred in the summers of 2001 and 2003. The output from this field campaign is a large observational database gathered

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Harry H. Hendon, Brant Liebmann, and John D. Glick

denseTropical Atmosphere Ocean (TAO) mooring array ( Hayes et al. 1991 ), which spans the equatorial Pacific from near 150°E to near 90°W. KMW also showed the typical vertical displacement of the thermocline produced by these waves to be about 20 m and that these waves exhibit a distinct seasonal variation, with maximum activity occurring from November through March. These Kelvin waves are of interest because they are nondispersive and are the fastest propagating waves along the equator: Localized surface

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Qingfang Jiang, Alex Reinecke, and James D. Doyle

by triangles and a gravity wave variance maximum from previous studies (e.g., Jiang et al. 2002 ) highlighted by a gray ellipse and the modified model terrain of (b) SGI (grayscale and contour intervals are 0.2 and 0.4 km), (c) PAT (grayscale and contour intervals are 0.3 and 0.6 km), and (d) ANT (grayscale and contour intervals are 0.3 and 0.6 km). The objective of this study is to gain new insight into the orographic contribution to the stratospheric wave drag over the Southern Ocean

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Paul E. Roundy

.g., Maloney and Hartmann 2001 ; Frank and Roundy 2006 ). The MJO also triggers Kelvin waves in the ocean (e.g., Hendon et al. 1998 ). These oceanic waves modulate the development of some MJO events because atmospheric convection responds to sea surface temperature changes induced by the waves ( Roundy and Kiladis 2006 ). Although the extent of the relevance of each of these smaller-scale modes to the behavior of the MJO requires further study, each of these eastward- and westward-moving modes apparently

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Chia-Ying Lee and Shuyi S. Chen

temperature fields that affect the TC intensity. Deep convection in the eyewall and rainbands is connected to the ocean surface through the hurricane boundary layer (HBL), which is difficult to observe in high wind conditions. Recent advancements in high-resolution, fully coupled atmosphere–wave–ocean modeling (e.g., Bao et al. 2000 ; Chen et al. 2007 ) and coupled observations from the Coupled Boundary Layer Air–Sea Transfer (CBLAST)-Hurricane field program in 2003–04 (e.g., Black et al. 2007

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