Search Results

You are looking at 1 - 10 of 492 items for :

  • Waves, oceanic x
  • Journal of Hydrometeorology x
  • Refine by Access: Content accessible to me x
Clear All
Xiaoyang Li, Ryuichi Kawamura, Atsuko Sugimoto, and Kei Yoshimura

1. Introduction Explosive extratropical cyclones are defined as when the surface central pressure falls at a rate of at least 1 mb h −1 for 24 h (1 mb = 1 hPa), also called meteorological “bombs” ( Sanders and Gyakum 1980 ). Explosive cyclones, as severe weather disasters, induce heavy precipitation with devastating floods and cause great damage to human society during boreal winter, especially in the northwestern region of the Pacific and Atlantic oceans ( Sanders and Davis 1988 ; Yoshida

Open access
David A. Lavers, Shaun Harrigan, and Christel Prudhomme

modeled freshwater flux from the land to the ocean. The resulting reduced ocean salinity then in turn could affect the ocean circulation and degrade ocean–atmosphere interactions. It has been previously found in a project—named the Benefits of dynamically modeled river discharge input for ocean and coupled atmosphere–land–ocean systems ( Mercator Ocean 2020 )—that when coupling the land and the ocean with the GloFAS-ERA5 river discharge reanalysis, a large degradation was seen in ocean modeling skill

Open access
David A MacLeod, Rutger Dankers, Richard Graham, Kiswendsida Guigma, Luke Jenkins, Martin C. Todd, Augustine Kiptum, Mary Kilavi, Andrew Njogu, and Emmah Mwangi

with extensive flood loss and damage from exceptionally wet seasons. During the “long rains” season of 2018 flooding across Kenya caused the displacement of 300 000 people ( OCHA 2018 ), shortly followed by the “short rains” October–December season flooding of 2019, associated with a strong Indian Ocean dipole event ( Doi et al. 2020 ; Wainwright et al. 2020 ). Anomalous wet conditions persisted across East Africa through to May 2020 resulting in hundreds of deaths from flood and landslides and

Open access
Allison B. Marquardt Collow, Haiden Mersiovsky, and Michael G. Bosilovich

extreme precipitation events, the anomalously low pressure in the Gulf of Alaska extends vertically into the middle troposphere, which is not necessarily the case for all ARs. A jet streak at 250 hPa is also located directly over the region during extreme precipitation events, as opposed to southwest, over the Pacific Ocean. Despite not being discussed here, Rossby wave breaking is an important mechanism for AR-induced extreme precipitation events ( Ryoo et al. 2013 ; Payne and Magnusdottir 2014

Free access
Trent W. Ford, Steven M. Quiring, Chen Zhao, Zachary T. Leasor, and Christian Landry

.25° horizontal resolution. We use the ESA-CCI dataset in this study instead of an individual platform such as Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP; Entekhabi et al. 2010 ) or Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS L3; Kerr et al. 2010 ) because of their relatively short data records (~5 years and ~11 years, respectively). ESA-CCI provides daily soil moisture observations in units of volumetric water content (m 3 m −3 ). The Noah soil moisture dataset, which is part of the National Land Data Assimilation

Free access
Ayumi Fujisaki-Manome, Greg E. Mann, Eric J. Anderson, Philip Y. Chu, Lindsay E. Fitzpatrick, Stanley G. Benjamin, Eric P. James, Tatiana G. Smirnova, Curtis R. Alexander, and David M. Wright

.1029/95JC02554 . 10.1029/95JC02554 Mellor , G. L. , and T. Yamada , 1982 : Development of a turbulent closure model for geophysical fluid problems . Rev. Geophys. , 20 , 851 – 875 , . 10.1029/RG020i004p00851 Mellor , G. L. , and A. Blumberg , 2004 : Wave breaking and ocean surface layer thermal response . J. Phys. Oceanogr. , 34 , 693 – 698 , . 10.1175/2517.1 Minder , J. R. , W. M. Bartolini , C. Spence

Open access
Joel R. Norris, F. Martin Ralph, Reuben Demirdjian, Forest Cannon, Byron Blomquist, Christopher W. Fairall, J. Ryan Spackman, Simone Tanelli, and Duane E. Waliser

forced upslope due to coastal orography ( Ralph et al. 2006 ; Neiman et al. 2011 ). The importance of ARs to water supply and flood danger has motivated observational campaigns to understand the processes that increase and decrease IWV. Previous observational campaigns (e.g., Neiman et al. 2014 , 2016 ) investigated ARs over the northeastern Pacific Ocean using in situ aircraft observations and dropsondes. While satellites can report the spatial distribution of IWV, only in situ measurements can

Open access
Ju-Yu Chen, Silke Trömel, Alexander Ryzhkov, and Clemens Simmer

horizontally/vertically polarized radar waves ( A H / V , in dB km −1 ) cannot be directly measured, but derived from observed Z h / υ and Φ DP . Following the ZPHI method proposed by Testud et al. (2000) , the radial profile of A H / V ( r ) within the range interval ( r 1 , r 2 ) can be estimated via (3) A H / V ⁡ ( r ) = Z a h / υ ⁡ ( r ) b h / υ C ⁡ ( b h / υ , PIA ) I a h / υ ⁡ ( r 1 , r 2 ) + C ⁡ ( b h / υ , PIA ) I a h / υ ⁡ ( r , r 2 ) where (4) I a h / υ ⁡ ( r 1 , r 2 )   =   0.46 b h / υ ∫ r

Open access
Alejandro Hermoso, Victor Homar, and Arnau Amengual

this time, the trough was already cut off from the main synoptic wave and continued advancing southward over Algeria, where it remained nearly stationary on 12 and 13 September ( Fig. 2a ). Fig . 2. ECMWF analyses valid at 1200 UTC 12 Sep 2019 of (a) geopotential (m 2 s −2 ; solid line), temperature (°C; dashed line) at 500 hPa, and 250-hPa potential vorticity (PVU; shaded) and (b) sea level pressure (hPa; solid line) and temperature (°C; dashed line) at 850 hPa. At low levels, the situation on 10

Open access
Guotao Cui, Roger Bales, Robert Rice, Michael Anderson, Francesco Avanzi, Peter Hartsough, and Martha Conklin

(red line) and melting layer based on radar reflectivity in an atmospheric column, modified after Mizukami et al. (2013) . The on-the-ground rain–snow-transition elevation can be inferred from remotely sensed observations of atmospheric snow level (i.e., the atmospheric elevation at which snow becomes the dominant form of precipitation). Frequency-modulated continuous wave (FMCW) radars ( Johnston et al. 2009 , 2017 ) can estimate the snow level above their locations by identifying the elevation

Free access