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Ravi P. Shukla and James L. Kinter

2015 ); (ii) interactions between the tropics and extratropics expressed, for example, in the dispersion of Rossby waves in response to tropical tropospheric heating ( Hoskins and Karoly 1981 ); (iii) persistent ocean anomalies in both the tropics (e.g., Alexander 1992 ) and extratropics (e.g., Hartmann 2015 ); and (iv) persistent soil moisture anomalies that alter surface fluxes and atmospheric boundary layer stability (e.g., Koster et al. 2011 ; Guo et al. 2012 ). Considerable research into

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Frank Woodcock and Diana J. M. Greenslade

the error in wave forecasts arises from errors in the surface winds (in deep water at least), this should lead to improved predictions of ocean waves. There are also connections here with data assimilation methods that could be explored further. For example, the corrections based on the training sets could feed into estimates of the magnitude of the model prediction error that are required for data assimilation schemes. Indeed, the relationship between the corrections at neighboring sites could

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Ashley Ellenson and H. Tuba Özkan-Haller

system can provide timely information that can guide emergency response procedures or inform marine users about when marine conditions are safe enough to interface with the ocean. Wave predictions can be made on global or regional scales ( Fan et al. 2012 ; Monbaliu et al. 2000 ). The range of scales allows for the implementation of wave predictions in different contexts. Global predictions can be used to assess potential resources for wave energy harvesting or the exploration of Earth system

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Andy Taylor and Gary B. Brassington

, T. , B. A. Colle , N. Georgas , A. F. Blumberg , and A. A. Taylor , 2011 : Verification of a multimodel storm surge ensemble around New York city and Long Island for the cool season . Wea. Forecasting , 26 , 922 – 939 , . 10.1175/WAF-D-10-05055.1 Ding , Y. , X. Bao , and M. Shi , 2012 : Characteristics of coastal trapped waves along the northern coast of the South China Sea during year 1990 . Ocean Dyn. , 62 , 1259 – 1285

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Juanjuan Wang, Benxia Li, Zhiyi Gao, and Jiuke Wang

1. Introduction Chinese public wave forecasts are released by the National Marine Environmental Forecasting Center (NMEFC), including operational numerical forecasts and bespoke correction. The numerical forecasts provide wave products in the global ocean, northwest Pacific, and China Sea based on the WaveWatchIII model ( Wang and Yu 2009 ; H. Wang et al. 2016 ). They come from the Chinese Global Operational Oceanography Forecasting System (CGOFS v1.0), and the details are introduced in H

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Will Perrie, Weiqing Zhang, Mark Bourassa, Hui Shen, and Paris W. Vachon

1. Introduction High winds and waves frequently occur in North Atlantic Ocean waters, particularly with the generation and development of hurricanes. For example, in September 2002 Hurricane Gustav tracked past Nova Scotia, between Sable Banks and the mainland shoreline, as a category-2 hurricane. In September 2003, Hurricane Isabel developed to category-5 intensity north of the Caribbean and, moving toward the northwest, weakened to category 2 as it made landfall in North Carolina. Collecting

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Charles R. Sampson, Paul A. Wittmann, and Hendrik L. Tolman

Atmospheric Prediction System (NOGAPS; Hogan and Rosmond 1991 ) run at the Fleet Numerical Meteorology and Oceanography Center (FNMOC) is used to produce wind forcing for a third-generation spectral ocean wave model (WAVEWATCH III; Tolman 1991 ; Tolman et al. 2002 ), as described in Rogers et al. (2005) . The NOGAPS tropical cyclone forecast for this time is shown in Fig. 1a . The initial NOGAPS position is within 0.1° latitude of the JTWC-analyzed position at the time, but the NOGAPS initial

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Jean-Raymond Bidlot, Damian J. Holmes, Paul A. Wittmann, Roop Lalbeharry, and Hsuan S. Chen

Staabs (1998) have nevertheless shown the relative good quality of both model and the latest satellite data [Ocean Topography Experiment (TOPEX), ERS]. The combined use of in situ (buoys) and satellite wave observations has now become a diagnostic tool of surface winds via the integrating effect of a wave model. Bearing in mind the imperfections of any wave model, the quality of the surface winds from the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) 15-yr reanalysis (ERA) was examined

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M. L. Khandekar and R. Lalbeharry

VOL. 11, NO. 2 JUNE 1996 WEATHER AND FORECASTING An Evaluation of Environment Canada's Operational Ocean Wave Model Based on Moored Buoy Data M. L. KHANDEKAR AND R. LALBEHARRY Atmospheric Environment Service, Downsview, Ontario, Canada (Manuscript received 17 March 1995, in final form 24 August 1995) ABSTRACT An operational ocean wave model called the Canadian Spectral Ocean Wave Model ( CSOWM) has been implemented in the operational forecasting system of the Atmospheric

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Hendrik L. Tolman, Bhavani Balasubramaniyan, Lawrence D. Burroughs, Dmitry V. Chalikov, Yung Y. Chao, Hsuan S. Chen, and Vera M. Gerald

1. Introduction Wind waves generated and propagated on the ocean surface potentially represent a serious hazard to life and property in various maritime and coastal activities. Hence, it is necessary to develop the capability to forecast wave conditions over global and regional ocean domains to minimize loss of life and property. The Ocean Modeling Branch (OMB) of the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) and its predecessors have a long history of providing the marine

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