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Kumar Vijay Mishra, Witold F. Krajewski, Radoslaw Goska, Daniel Ceynar, Bong-Chul Seo, Anton Kruger, James J. Niemeier, Miguel B. Galvez, Merhala Thurai, V. N. Bringi, Leonid Tolstoy, Paul A. Kucera, Walter A. Petersen, Jacopo Grazioli, and Andrew L. Pazmany

precipitation process such as the seeder–feeder mechanism. Kabeche et al. (2010) have analyzed quantitative precipitation estimates obtained from a network of X-band radars operating at 300 m. Pazmany et al. (2013) have deployed a mobile X-band radar that employs a traveling wave tube amplifier (TWTA) to study severe storms and tornadoes at a minimum range resolution of 15 m and azimuthal scan rates of 180° s −1 . Picciotti et al. (2013) reported hydrologic applications with a network of three low

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Munir A. Nayak, Gabriele Villarini, and A. Allen Bradley

beneficial rains that replenish water resources, and in some cases, help end long-term droughts ( Dettinger et al. 2011 ; Dettinger 2013 ; Ralph et al. 2013 ; Lavers and Villarini 2015a ). Over the central United States, a necessary condition for the occurrence of major heavy rainfall events leading to floods is the presence of moist air advected by the Great Plains LLJ from oceanic sources, including the tropical Atlantic, the Gulf of Mexico, and the Caribbean Sea ( Dirmeyer and Kinter 2009 , 2010

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Di Wu, Christa Peters-Lidard, Wei-Kuo Tao, and Walter Petersen

. 5 ). Strong upper-level support is also present for periods II, V, and VI, though no surface front or moisture boundaries are found during these periods. Rainfall forecasts are fairly accurate for these periods and successfully depict the timing of the observed peaks ( Fig. 5 ). NU-WRF generally overestimated rainfall during these periods, and NAM has overestimated rainfall during periods V and VI. Three of these periods have either shortwave troughs (VII) or a combination of short waves and

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Huan Wu, Robert F. Adler, Yudong Tian, Guojun Gu, and George J. Huffman

-RT and CMORPH have a 4-day time lag, leading to an estimated flood wave for the largest event 2–3 days earlier than observed during IFloodS. Spatial–temporal resolution and other characteristics of precipitation products can impact the simulation of peak timing. The evaluation framework developed in this study can be applied to different river basins at continental and global scales, depending on the availability of reliable observed data. It is possible that the QPE product that can be regarded as

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