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Xiaoyang Li, Ryuichi Kawamura, Atsuko Sugimoto, and Kei Yoshimura

1. Introduction Explosive extratropical cyclones are defined as when the surface central pressure falls at a rate of at least 1 mb h −1 for 24 h (1 mb = 1 hPa), also called meteorological “bombs” ( Sanders and Gyakum 1980 ). Explosive cyclones, as severe weather disasters, induce heavy precipitation with devastating floods and cause great damage to human society during boreal winter, especially in the northwestern region of the Pacific and Atlantic oceans ( Sanders and Davis 1988 ; Yoshida

Open access
David A. Lavers, Shaun Harrigan, and Christel Prudhomme

modeled freshwater flux from the land to the ocean. The resulting reduced ocean salinity then in turn could affect the ocean circulation and degrade ocean–atmosphere interactions. It has been previously found in a project—named the Benefits of dynamically modeled river discharge input for ocean and coupled atmosphere–land–ocean systems ( Mercator Ocean 2020 )—that when coupling the land and the ocean with the GloFAS-ERA5 river discharge reanalysis, a large degradation was seen in ocean modeling skill

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David A MacLeod, Rutger Dankers, Richard Graham, Kiswendsida Guigma, Luke Jenkins, Martin C. Todd, Augustine Kiptum, Mary Kilavi, Andrew Njogu, and Emmah Mwangi

with extensive flood loss and damage from exceptionally wet seasons. During the “long rains” season of 2018 flooding across Kenya caused the displacement of 300 000 people ( OCHA 2018 ), shortly followed by the “short rains” October–December season flooding of 2019, associated with a strong Indian Ocean dipole event ( Doi et al. 2020 ; Wainwright et al. 2020 ). Anomalous wet conditions persisted across East Africa through to May 2020 resulting in hundreds of deaths from flood and landslides and

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Ayumi Fujisaki-Manome, Greg E. Mann, Eric J. Anderson, Philip Y. Chu, Lindsay E. Fitzpatrick, Stanley G. Benjamin, Eric P. James, Tatiana G. Smirnova, Curtis R. Alexander, and David M. Wright

.1029/95JC02554 . 10.1029/95JC02554 Mellor , G. L. , and T. Yamada , 1982 : Development of a turbulent closure model for geophysical fluid problems . Rev. Geophys. , 20 , 851 – 875 , . 10.1029/RG020i004p00851 Mellor , G. L. , and A. Blumberg , 2004 : Wave breaking and ocean surface layer thermal response . J. Phys. Oceanogr. , 34 , 693 – 698 , . 10.1175/2517.1 Minder , J. R. , W. M. Bartolini , C. Spence

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Joel R. Norris, F. Martin Ralph, Reuben Demirdjian, Forest Cannon, Byron Blomquist, Christopher W. Fairall, J. Ryan Spackman, Simone Tanelli, and Duane E. Waliser

forced upslope due to coastal orography ( Ralph et al. 2006 ; Neiman et al. 2011 ). The importance of ARs to water supply and flood danger has motivated observational campaigns to understand the processes that increase and decrease IWV. Previous observational campaigns (e.g., Neiman et al. 2014 , 2016 ) investigated ARs over the northeastern Pacific Ocean using in situ aircraft observations and dropsondes. While satellites can report the spatial distribution of IWV, only in situ measurements can

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Ju-Yu Chen, Silke Trömel, Alexander Ryzhkov, and Clemens Simmer

horizontally/vertically polarized radar waves ( A H / V , in dB km −1 ) cannot be directly measured, but derived from observed Z h / υ and Φ DP . Following the ZPHI method proposed by Testud et al. (2000) , the radial profile of A H / V ( r ) within the range interval ( r 1 , r 2 ) can be estimated via (3) A H / V ⁡ ( r ) = Z a h / υ ⁡ ( r ) b h / υ C ⁡ ( b h / υ , PIA ) I a h / υ ⁡ ( r 1 , r 2 ) + C ⁡ ( b h / υ , PIA ) I a h / υ ⁡ ( r , r 2 ) where (4) I a h / υ ⁡ ( r 1 , r 2 )   =   0.46 b h / υ ∫ r

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Alejandro Hermoso, Victor Homar, and Arnau Amengual

this time, the trough was already cut off from the main synoptic wave and continued advancing southward over Algeria, where it remained nearly stationary on 12 and 13 September ( Fig. 2a ). Fig . 2. ECMWF analyses valid at 1200 UTC 12 Sep 2019 of (a) geopotential (m 2 s −2 ; solid line), temperature (°C; dashed line) at 500 hPa, and 250-hPa potential vorticity (PVU; shaded) and (b) sea level pressure (hPa; solid line) and temperature (°C; dashed line) at 850 hPa. At low levels, the situation on 10

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Erin Dougherty, Erin Sherman, and Kristen L. Rasmussen

the warm sector of extratropical cyclones coming off the Pacific Ocean ( Neiman et al. 2008 ). They are defined in a variety of ways, based upon their scale and intensity. Neiman et al. (2008) defined them as narrow plumes of integrated water vapor (IWV) exceeding 2 cm and over 2000 km long and less than 1000 km wide. They are also defined by integrated water vapor transport (IVT), with one common form of this equation given by Gao et al. (2015) : (1) IVT = ⁡ ( 1 g ∫ 1000 500 q u   d p ) 2

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Jessica C. A. Baker, Dayana Castilho de Souza, Paulo Y. Kubota, Wolfgang Buermann, Caio A. S. Coelho, Martin B. Andrews, Manuel Gloor, Luis Garcia-Carreras, Silvio N. Figueroa, and Dominick V. Spracklen

downloaded from the CMIP6 Earth System Grid Federation (ESGF) archives ( ) at monthly resolution (surface SM data only were downloaded at daily resolution and converted to monthly means, due to monthly output being unavailable for this variable). MM (medium resolution in atmosphere and ocean) simulations (N216) have a horizontal resolution equivalent to approximately 60 km in the midlatitudes ( Roberts et al. 2019 ). HadGEM3 uses the Unified Model global

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Nina Raoult, Catherine Ottlé, Philippe Peylin, Vladislav Bastrikov, and Pascal Maugis

compared to hours to days), the residence times of soil moisture are also important for the prediction of heat waves ( Lorenz et al. 2010 ), droughts ( Nicholson 2000 ), floods ( Bonan and Stillwell-Soller 1998 ), crop yield ( de Wit and Van Diepen 2008 ), or wildfires ( Krueger et al. 2015 ). However, modeling soil moisture dynamics is complex since it exhibits large sensitivities to meteorological forcing data and land surface model parameterizations. Fortunately, there are now a large variety of

Open access