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  • Waves, oceanic x
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Kenneth G. Hughes, James N. Moum, and Emily L. Shroyer

waves (e.g., Lueck 2016 ). Recent examples of surface-following platforms include a sailboard adapted to measure salinity profiles in the top meter of the ocean ( Asher et al. 2014 ), a trimaran adapted to measure atmospheric turbulence just above the sea surface ( Bourras et al. 2014 ), and “SWIFT” drifters to measure near-surface turbulence and shear ( Thomson 2012 ; Thomson et al. 2019 ). Like Asher et al. (2014) , our platform is towed so as to sample undisturbed water outside the ship’s wake

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Jai Sukhatme, Dipanjan Chaudhuri, Jennifer MacKinnon, S. Shivaprasad, and Debasis Sengupta

contribution to surface KE, from geostrophic to internal wave motions ( Qiu et al. 2017 ). Here too, in some regions such as the Kuroshio and westward flowing North Equatorial Current (NEC), the geostrophic or rotational modes scaled with an approximate −3 exponent, while the divergent component followed a shallower spectrum. The transition from geostrophic to internal waves was observed to occur at different length scales in distinct latitudinal bands, representing the diverse oceanic conditions found

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Kenneth G. Hughes, James N. Moum, and Emily L. Shroyer

. They may vary over kilometers due to internal waves ( Soloviev and Lukas 1997 ), or alternatively organize over more than 1000 km ( Bellenger and Duvel 2009 ). Explicitly simulating DWLs in an ocean model requires high vertical resolution. Even 1-m spacing near the surface is inadequate for low wind scenarios. A climate model with a 10-m grid near the surface therefore needs to parameterize DWL physics. This is typically achieved, if attempted at all, by including a sublayer with idealized vertical

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Dipanjan Chaudhuri, Debasis Sengupta, Eric D’Asaro, R. Venkatesan, and M. Ravichandran

so has higher amplitudes than those in the mixed layer ( Figs. 6a–d ). The upward phase propagation in the zonal and meridional components of velocity ( U and V ) indicates that near-inertial waves carry energy out of the mixed layer to the subsurface ocean ( Leaman and Sanford 1975 ; Gill 1984 ; D’Asaro et al. 1995 ). Here, the near-inertial signal at subsurface depths persists for at least five inertial periods; further, most of the enhanced vertical shear of raw, unfiltered velocity ( Fig

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D. A. Cherian, E. L. Shroyer, H. W. Wijesekera, and J. N. Moum

efforts are required to properly constrain the magnitude of J s t . 5. Summary and future directions Yearlong observations of turbulence from moored mixing meters ( χ pods) revealed a seasonal cycle in upper-ocean turbulence along 8°N in the Bay of Bengal ( Figs. 3 and 7 and Table 1 ). In the Bay’s thermocline, the seasonal cycle of turbulence is influenced by downward propagating near-inertial waves and by low frequency shear associated with the Summer Monsoon Current and other mesoscale

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Sebastian Essink, Verena Hormann, Luca R. Centurioni, and Amala Mahadevan

and restratification . J. Phys. Oceanogr. , 37 , 2228 – 2250 , https://doi.org/10.1175/JPO3101.1 . 10.1175/JPO3101.1 Bühler , O. , J. Callies , and R. Ferrari , 2014 : Wave–vortex decomposition of one-dimensional ship-track data . J. Fluid Mech. , 756 , 1007 – 1026 , https://doi.org/10.1017/jfm.2014.488 . 10.1017/jfm.2014.488 Callies , J. , and R. Ferrari , 2013 : Interpreting energy and tracer spectra of upper-ocean turbulence in the submesoscale range (1–200 km) . J. Phys

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