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Lee-Lueng Fu

Moore (1981) was invoked to explain the 90-day variability. Most of the previous studies focused on the reflection of Kelvin waves at the eastern boundary of the basin and the interference between the reflected Rossby waves with Kelvin waves in reinforcing the wind-forced ocean response. Numerical experiments were performed by Han et al. (1999) and Han (2005) to test the effects of the eastern boundary reflection. In these experiments, a damper was placed at the eastern boundary to absorb the

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Rui M. Ponte and Sergey V. Vinogradov

midlatitude and equatorial β -plane oceans to simple P a forcing. In particular, stratification allows for the possible excitation of baroclinic resonances and a strong dynamic response, which would be absent in a homogeneous ocean. These analytical results are valid for a flat-bottom ocean and thus are not in any way related to topographic effects. The inclusion of topography introduces different spatial scales, allows for new wave modes, and can in principle complicate the problem ( Willebrand et al

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Walter Munk and Bruce Bills

the thermocline: The context of ocean mixing. J. Phys. Oceanogr. , 30 , 805 – 832 . Bell , T. H. , 1975 : Lee waves in stratified flows with simple harmonic time dependence. J. Fluid Mech. , 67 , 705 – 722 . Cartwright , D. E. , and R. J. Taylor , 1971 : New computations of the tide-generating potential. Geophys. J. Roy. Astron. Soc. , 23 , 45 – 74 . Cox , C. , and H. Sandstrom , 1962 : Coupling of surface and internal waves in water of variable depth. J. Oceanogr. Soc

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A. Köhl, D. Stammer, and B. Cornuelle

–cooling cycle. In contrast, the variability in the Tropics originates from the changes of the flow field on seasonal time scales and from Rossby wave activity there. However, most of the enhanced variability on the western and eastern sides of the Pacific Ocean and in the Indian Ocean are associated with the 1997/98 ENSO event. In the Southern Ocean, enhanced variability southwest of Australia and upstream of Drake Passage is associated with high-latitude barotropic activity. Figure 6 shows the mean

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D. Roemmich, J. Gilson, R. Davis, P. Sutton, S. Wijffels, and S. Riser

1. Introduction Prior to the World Ocean Circulation Experiment (WOCE) experiment of the 1990s, there was no systematic collection of global subsurface ocean data. The long-running expendable bathythermograph networks have a strong Northern Hemisphere bias and only follow shipping routes. Except for a few locations where repeated surveys were carried out, the pre-WOCE large-scale ocean circulation could be viewed only as a static or time-invariant entity because of limited data. This has now

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Martin Losch and Patrick Heimbach

unstable long Rossby waves. J. Phys. Oceanogr. , 33 , 1877 – 1887 . Galanti , E. , E. Tziperman , M. Harrison , A. Rosati , R. Giering , and Z. Sirkes , 2002 : The equatorial thermocline outcropping—A seasonal control on the tropical Pacific ocean–atmosphere instability. J. Climate , 15 , 2721 – 2739 . Ganachaud , A. , and C. Wunsch , 2000 : Improved estimates of global ocean circulation, heat transport and mixing from hydrographic data. Nature , 408 , 453 – 457

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Victor Zlotnicki, John Wahr, Ichiro Fukumori, and Yuhe T. Song

. Zlotnicki , 2004 : Ocean BP waves predicted in the tropical Pacific. Geophys. Res. Lett. , 31 . L05306, doi:10.1029/2003GL018980 . Song , Y. T. , and T. Y. Hou , 2006 : Parametric vertical coordinate formulation for multiscale, Boussinesq, and non-Boussinesq ocean modeling. Ocean Modell. , 11 , 298 – 232 . Sprintall , J. , 2003 : Seasonal to interannual upper-ocean variability in the Drake Passage. J. Mar. Res. , 61 , 27 – 57 . Swenson , S. , and J. Wahr , 2002a : Estimated

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Ichiro Fukumori, Dimitris Menemenlis, and Tong Lee

1. Introduction The Mediterranean Sea, being a semienclosed basin, is often considered a test bed for studying ocean general circulation. Its relatively small size in comparison with the global ocean is conducive to synoptic observations [e.g., the Physical Oceanography of the Eastern Mediterranean program; POEM Group (1992) ] and high-resolution numerical modeling (e.g., Korres et al. 2000 ). Yet its basin-wide circulation cannot be considered in isolation. Exchange through the Strait of

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Serguei Sokolov and Stephen R. Rintoul

waves (not shown). The fact that Fig. 4 shows these gradient maxima cluster around a particular SSH value suggests that such features have a preferred propagation path (in SSH space). e. Frequency distributions of the frontal pattern Having demonstrated that the fronts of the Southern Ocean can be traced reliably using SSH, we now use the weekly time series of SSH maps to characterize the variability of the ACC fronts in space and time. Variability in the path of the frontal jets is shown in Fig

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Dimitris Menemenlis, Ichiro Fukumori, and Tong Lee

1. Introduction The sea level difference between the Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea has been attributed mostly to the following: tides (e.g., Brandt et al. 2004 ), atmospheric pressure fluctuations (e.g., Tsimplis and Josey 2001 ), steric contributions (e.g., Cazenave et al. 2002 ), and geostrophic or hydraulic controls within the Strait of Gibraltar (e.g., Ross and Garrett 2000 ). Some studies ( Fukumori et al. 2007 ; García-Lafuente et al. 2002a , b ; Garrett 1983 ), however

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