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Gerald G. Mace
,
Alain Protat
,
Sally Benson
, and
Paul McGlynn

-polarization radar observations of snow growth processes of a severe winter storm: Case of 12 December 2013 in South Korea . J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. , 36 , 1217 – 1235 , https://doi.org/10.1175/JTECH-D-18-0076.1 . Austin , R. T. , and G. L. Stephens , 2001 : Retrieval of stratus cloud microphysical parameters using millimeter-wave radar and visible optical depth in preparation for CloudSat: 1. Algorithm formulation . J. Geophys. Res. , 106 , 28 233 – 28 242 , https://doi.org/10.1029/2000JD

Open access
Riku Shimizu
,
Shoichi Shige
,
Toshio Iguchi
,
Cheng-Ku Yu
, and
Lin-Wen Cheng

-based radar CFB is lower than 1000 m southeast of analysis area ( Figs. 5e,f ), where is near to the ground-based radar installed location (solid star in Fig. 1 ). On the other hand, in locations far from the ground-based radar installed location, the transmitted waves are blocked by the terrain, and the ground-based radar CFB becomes higher than 1200 m. Therefore, the DFRP-derived CFB, which is below 1000 m, is lower than ground-based radar CFB, which is about 1200–1300 m mainly over the ocean ( Figs. 5

Open access
Xiang Ni
,
Chuntao Liu
, and
Edward Zipser

of MAXHT20 and MAXHT30 over tropical (20°S–20°N) (top) land and (bottom) ocean. With different wavelengths at Ku and Ka bands, the electromagnetic waves interact with particles differently. The combination of the two channels would help in the retrieval of microphysical parameters. Typically, based on the radar equation, there are three likely influences on DFR profiles: 1) the Mie scattering effect, 2) the path-integrated attenuation, and 3) multiple scattering. Based on the Mie scattering

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Toshio Iguchi
,
Nozomi Kawamoto
, and
Riko Oki

estimate the particle size more accurately than a single-frequency radar so that we can improve the estimates of rainfall rate and identify snow precipitation regions. In fact, by using the difference in the scattering and attenuation properties of liquid and solid water particles between Ku- and Ka-band electromagnetic (EM) waves, it is possible to estimate the mean diameter of precipitation particles once an appropriate particle size distribution (PSD) model is chosen. Since the mean particle size

Open access
Clement Guilloteau
,
Efi Foufoula-Georgiou
,
Pierre Kirstetter
,
Jackson Tan
, and
George J. Huffman

. 3 , right column). Two-dimensional space–time PSDs are commonly used in climate and Earth science to analyze the propagation of atmospheric and oceanic waves along longitudes ( Wheeler and Kiladis 1999 ; Lin et al. 2006 ; Orbe et al. 2020 ). The left half of the PSD (negative wavelengths) corresponds to eastward propagating waves and the right half (positive wavelengths) corresponds to westward propagating waves. The two-dimensional space–time PSD shows the energy of the eastward and westward

Open access
Robert A. Houze Jr.
,
Lynn A. McMurdie
,
Walter A. Petersen
,
Mathew R. Schwaller
,
William Baccus
,
Jessica D. Lundquist
,
Clifford F. Mass
,
Bart Nijssen
,
Steven A. Rutledge
,
David R. Hudak
,
Simone Tanelli
,
Gerald G. Mace
,
Michael R. Poellot
,
Dennis P. Lettenmaier
,
Joseph P. Zagrodnik
,
Angela K. Rowe
,
Jennifer C. DeHart
,
Luke E. Madaus
,
Hannah C. Barnes
, and
V. Chandrasekar

mountain range with permanent snow cover. Figure 1 shows the terrain of the Olympic Mountain range, which occupies the Olympic Peninsula of the state of Washington. The peninsula has a north–south coastline on the Pacific Ocean and is separated from Canada’s Vancouver Island on its north side by the narrow Strait of Juan de Fuca. Fig . 1. Map of the region where the OLYMPEX campaign occurred, including the mountainous terrain of the Olympic Peninsula. The motivation for OLYMPEX was not only to better

Open access
E. F. Stocker
,
F. Alquaied
,
S. Bilanow
,
Y. Ji
, and
L. Jones

improved precipitation detection and bias corrections (K. Kanemaru 2017, personal communication). The 17+-yr record of TRMM PR showed a time-dependent drift of approximately 0.2 dB in the surface cross section over ocean, which has also been mitigated in GPM V05 ( Takahashi and Iguchi 2004 ). Further details on the calibration changes for GPM V05 processing of PR are outside the scope of this work and will be detailed in another publication. This paper provides information about the work undertaken to

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Zhi Li
,
Yixin Wen
,
Liang Liao
,
David Wolff
,
Robert Meneghini
, and
Terry Schuur

Weather radars have deepened our understanding of precipitation microphysics, improved quantitative precipitation estimates, and severe weather forecasts and warnings ( Crum and Alberty 1993 ; Hong and Gourley 2015 ; Weber et al. 2021 ; Zhang et al. 2016 ). In the United States, the well-known Weather Surveillance Radar-1988 Doppler (WSR-88D) network, operated by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), provides a quasi-continental coverage of high-quality observations

Open access
W.-K. Tao
,
T. Iguchi
, and
S. Lang

–liquid phases). LH and its vertical distribution not only have a strong influence on a variety of tropical circulations, including tropical waves and tropical cyclone intensity, but also on midlatitude cyclones and weather systems. Moreover, the processes associated with LH result in significant nonlinear changes in atmospheric radiation through the creation, dissipation, and modulation of clouds and precipitation. Although more recent efforts have been made to estimate the LH associated with weakly

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Sara Q. Zhang
,
T. Matsui
,
S. Cheung
,
M. Zupanski
, and
C. Peters-Lidard

processes. For example, at synoptic time scales, variability of the rainfall is observed linking to tropical wave dynamics ( Mounier et al. 2007 ) and the extratropical intrusion of dry air ( Roca et al. 2005 ). The dominant mode of synoptic variability of precipitation is correlated with African easterly waves (AEWs) through the dynamic relationship to organized convection systems ( Kiladis et al. 2006 ; Skinner and Diffenbaugh 2013 ). Satellite observations and numerical model simulations are

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