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Simon P. de Szoeke

1. Introduction The temperature profile of the upper meter of the ocean is sensitive to radiative absorption, turbulent surface heat flux, mixing by wind and convection, molecular viscosity, and wave effects. Solar absorption results in a diurnal warm layer near-surface temperature maximum below a molecular cool skin (e.g., Stuart-Menteth et al. 2005 ; Kawai and Wada 2007 ). Floating thermistors measure diurnal warm layers. Diurnal warm layers affect SST remote sensing, so measurements in

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Kenneth G. Hughes, James N. Moum, and Emily L. Shroyer

waves (e.g., Lueck 2016 ). Recent examples of surface-following platforms include a sailboard adapted to measure salinity profiles in the top meter of the ocean ( Asher et al. 2014 ), a trimaran adapted to measure atmospheric turbulence just above the sea surface ( Bourras et al. 2014 ), and “SWIFT” drifters to measure near-surface turbulence and shear ( Thomson 2012 ; Thomson et al. 2019 ). Like Asher et al. (2014) , our platform is towed so as to sample undisturbed water outside the ship’s wake

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Jai Sukhatme, Dipanjan Chaudhuri, Jennifer MacKinnon, S. Shivaprasad, and Debasis Sengupta

contribution to surface KE, from geostrophic to internal wave motions ( Qiu et al. 2017 ). Here too, in some regions such as the Kuroshio and westward flowing North Equatorial Current (NEC), the geostrophic or rotational modes scaled with an approximate −3 exponent, while the divergent component followed a shallower spectrum. The transition from geostrophic to internal waves was observed to occur at different length scales in distinct latitudinal bands, representing the diverse oceanic conditions found

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Adam V. Rydbeck, Tommy G. Jensen, and Matthew R. Igel

wave response to convective heating, and 10%–25% of the convergence resulted from SST-induced pressure gradients. Carbone and Li (2015) observed that SST forcing of boundary layer convergence led ISO convection by ~10 days in the Eastern Hemisphere. The observed correlations between ISO SST forcing and rainfall were particularly strong in the western Indian Ocean, suggesting a role for SST-forced boundary layer convergence in ISO initiation [see Figs. 9 and 11 of Carbone and Li (2015 )]. Webber

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Wei-Ting Chen, Shih-Pei Hsu, Yuan-Huai Tsai, and Chung-Hsiung Sui

TC genesis to take place. Tropical waves can also interact with the prominent diurnal variability over the MC and SCS. In MJO events, the mean and diurnal amplitude of land precipitations over the MC are enhanced 6 days ahead of the MJO convection envelope, while the precipitation over the coastal ocean is largely suppressed ( Peatman et al. 2014 ; Birch et al. 2016 ; Hung and Sui 2018 ). Baranowski et al. (2016b) tracked the KW events passing MC using satellite observations to identify the

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Kenneth G. Hughes, James N. Moum, and Emily L. Shroyer

. They may vary over kilometers due to internal waves ( Soloviev and Lukas 1997 ), or alternatively organize over more than 1000 km ( Bellenger and Duvel 2009 ). Explicitly simulating DWLs in an ocean model requires high vertical resolution. Even 1-m spacing near the surface is inadequate for low wind scenarios. A climate model with a 10-m grid near the surface therefore needs to parameterize DWL physics. This is typically achieved, if attempted at all, by including a sublayer with idealized vertical

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Dipanjan Chaudhuri, Debasis Sengupta, Eric D’Asaro, R. Venkatesan, and M. Ravichandran

so has higher amplitudes than those in the mixed layer ( Figs. 6a–d ). The upward phase propagation in the zonal and meridional components of velocity ( U and V ) indicates that near-inertial waves carry energy out of the mixed layer to the subsurface ocean ( Leaman and Sanford 1975 ; Gill 1984 ; D’Asaro et al. 1995 ). Here, the near-inertial signal at subsurface depths persists for at least five inertial periods; further, most of the enhanced vertical shear of raw, unfiltered velocity ( Fig

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Corinne B. Trott, Bulusu Subrahmanyam, Heather L. Roman-Stork, V. S. N. Murty, and C. Gnanaseelan

northwestward over India ( Chatterjee and Goswami 2004 ; Kikuchi and Wang 2009 ). Significant rainfall occurs around the low centers, greatly contributing to monsoon rainfall totals ( Chen and Chen 1993 ; Chatterjee and Goswami 2004 ; Kikuchi and Wang 2009 ). Observed meridional currents reveal westward vertically propagating biweekly waves in the equatorial Indian Ocean with zonal wavelengths ranging from 2100 to 6100 km generated by subseasonal wind variability, characteristics of the quasi

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D. A. Cherian, E. L. Shroyer, H. W. Wijesekera, and J. N. Moum

efforts are required to properly constrain the magnitude of J s t . 5. Summary and future directions Yearlong observations of turbulence from moored mixing meters ( χ pods) revealed a seasonal cycle in upper-ocean turbulence along 8°N in the Bay of Bengal ( Figs. 3 and 7 and Table 1 ). In the Bay’s thermocline, the seasonal cycle of turbulence is influenced by downward propagating near-inertial waves and by low frequency shear associated with the Summer Monsoon Current and other mesoscale

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Kyle Chudler, Weixin Xu, and Steven A. Rutledge

over and near the highest terrain, rather than displaced to the west over open ocean as indicated by Fig. 1 . So, while orographic lifting may play some role, it alone likely cannot explain the observed precipitation patterns. Fig . 1. Mean monthly summer precipitation (from TRMM 3B42), surface wind vectors (from CCMP), and topography elevation (from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission) for the (a) Asian and (b) Philippines region. The longitudinal band highlighted in (b) is the area analyzed in

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