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Suzana J. Camargo, Claudia F. Giulivi, Adam H. Sobel, Allison A. Wing, Daehyun Kim, Yumin Moon, Jeffrey D. O. Strong, Anthony D. Del Genio, Maxwell Kelley, Hiroyuki Murakami, Kevin A. Reed, Enrico Scoccimarro, Gabriel A. Vecchi, Michael F. Wehner, Colin Zarzycki, and Ming Zhao

; Emanuel and Nolan 2004 ; Emanuel 2010 ; Tippett et al. 2011 ; Bruyère et al. 2012 ; Camargo et al. 2014 ), making improvements and modifications on the original predictors by Gray. These modifications include using potential intensity instead of sea surface temperature (SST) ( Emanuel and Nolan 2004 ; Emanuel 2010 ), determining a threshold effect for vorticity ( Tippett et al. 2011 ), considering the saturation deficit of the midtroposphere instead of relative humidity ( Emanuel 2010 ; Camargo

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Stephanie A. Henderson, Eric D. Maloney, and Seok-Woo Son

Rossby waves that propagate into the extratropics and significantly modulate the extratropical circulation (e.g., Matthews et al. 2004 ; Seo and Son 2012 ). The MJO modulates various aspects of weather and climate including regional temperatures (e.g., Vecchi and Bond 2004 ), precipitation (e.g., Jones et al. 2004 ; Donald et al. 2006 ), atmospheric blocking (e.g., Henderson et al. 2016 ), hurricanes (e.g., Maloney and Hartmann 2000 ; Liebmann et al. 1994 ), and global monsoons ( Lorenz and

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Jiabao Wang, Hyemi Kim, Daehyun Kim, Stephanie A. Henderson, Cristiana Stan, and Eric D. Maloney

likely to occur about 5–15 days after MJO phase 3, and a negative NAO is likely to occur after phase 7 ( Cassou 2008 ; Lin et al. 2009 ). The MJO can thus modulate midlatitude weather systems via modulating these teleconnection patterns. Henderson et al. (2016) found a significant decrease in eastern Pacific and Atlantic blocking events following MJO phase 3, and an increase following phase 7. Deng and Jiang (2011) found a poleward shift of North Pacific storm track about two weeks after MJO

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