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Jieshun Zhu, Arun Kumar, and Wanqiu Wang

1. Introduction There has been growing interest in forecasts at subseasonal time scales (i.e., 3–4 weeks; National Research Council 2010 ; National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine 2016 ), which fills the gap between medium-range weather forecast and seasonal prediction. The Madden–Julian oscillation (MJO; Madden and Julian 1971 ), the primary mode of tropical intraseasonal climate variability in the boreal winter and spring, is considered to be a major source of global

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Chen Li, Jing-Jia Luo, and Shuanglin Li

multidecadal fluctuation of the CEF seesaw, and the possible role of the Indian Ocean dipole (IOD) in the CEF seesaw are discussed in section 5 . A summary is given in section 6 . 2. Observational data and model experiments a. Observational data and methods Monthly mean horizontal and vertical winds at multiple pressure levels, sea level pressure (SLP), precipitation, and SST data for the period 1900–2010 are derived from the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) twentieth

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Lei Song and Renguang Wu

1. Introduction East Asia is subject to frequent cold events during boreal winter. The long-lasting cold event in January and early February 2008 caused large economic and life losses in eastern China ( Zhou et al. 2009 ; Wen et al. 2009 ). In December 2009, several cold events occurred in the United States, Europe, and East Asia, bringing grave damage to these regions ( Wang and Chen 2010 ). A strong cold event struck East Asia in January 2016, causing snowfall and frigid weather in many

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Claire L. Vincent and Todd P. Lane

1. Introduction The Maritime Continent (MC) plays an important role as a heat and moisture source that can impact global circulation and modulate planetary-scale variability ( Neale and Slingo 2003 ). However, despite its importance, large errors are commonly found in the MC region in global and regional climate and weather models (e.g., Gianotti et al. 2012 ; Holloway et al. 2012 ; Nguyen et al. 2015 ; Dirmeyer et al. 2012 ; and others). One likely source of these errors arises from the

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Kevin E. Trenberth and Yongxin Zhang

Zealand downstream. Hence the change in local winds also force some modifications in surface fluxes and wind stress. Any link between ENSO-related variations in the ITF and the Tasman Sea heat waves has been generally assigned to the atmospheric bridge connections. The studies thus far have overlooked the likelihood that there is also a direct ocean connection through the changes in mass and heat transport with the ITF that indeed relate to opposite changes in the East Australian Current region

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