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Sonja Gisinger
,
Andreas Dörnbrack
,
Vivien Matthias
,
James D. Doyle
,
Stephen D. Eckermann
,
Benedikt Ehard
,
Lars Hoffmann
,
Bernd Kaifler
,
Christopher G. Kruse
, and
Markus Rapp

. Data sources Operational analyses of the Integrated Forecast System (IFS) of the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) are used to provide meteorological data to characterize the atmospheric situation. The 6-hourly operational analysis and hourly forecast fields of the IFS cycle 40r1 have a horizontal resolution on the reduced linear Gaussian grid of about 16 km (T L 1279) and 137 vertical model levels (L137) from the ground to ~80 km (0.01 hPa) with layer thicknesses gradually

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Benedikt Ehard
,
Peggy Achtert
,
Andreas Dörnbrack
,
Sonja Gisinger
,
Jörg Gumbel
,
Mikhail Khaplanov
,
Markus Rapp
, and
Johannes Wagner

higher altitudes (e.g., Siskind 2014 ). Thereby, the wind field and the thermal structure of the middle atmosphere are modified (e.g., Lindzen 1981 ; Holton and Alexander 2000 ). Internal gravity waves have been measured and analyzed with a large variety of active and passive remote sensing techniques as well as with in situ observations. These observational tools include airborne and ground-based lidars (e.g., Alexander et al. 2011 ; Dörnbrack et al 2002 ; Rauthe et al. 2008 ; Williams et al

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Tanja C. Portele
,
Andreas Dörnbrack
,
Johannes S. Wagner
,
Sonja Gisinger
,
Benedikt Ehard
,
Pierre-Dominique Pautet
, and
Markus Rapp

analyses valid at 0000, 0600, 1200, and 1800 UTC and 1-hourly high-resolution forecasts at intermediate lead times (+1, +2, +3, +4, +5, +7, +8, +9, +10, and +11 h) of the 0000 and 1200 UTC forecast runs of the Integrated Forecast System (IFS) of the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) are further used to visualize the temporal evolution of the upstream conditions at 44.20°S, 167.50°E ( Fig. 1 ). The IFS cycle 40r1 has a horizontal resolution of about 16 km, 137 vertical model

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