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Fiaz Ahmed and J. David Neelin

Maloney 2011 ) to even interannual ( Neale et al. 2008 ). Agreement between convective transition statistics in models and observations is also sensitive to the assumed entrainment—a fact used to constrain its vertical profile and magnitudes in GCMs ( Sahany et al. 2012 ; Kuo et al. 2017 ). Observational studies of mesoscale convective systems (MCSs; Houze 2004 ) provide another plausible pathway to constraining entrainment profiles, particularly with respect to deep, organized convection

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James F. Booth, Catherine M. Naud, and Jeff Willison

precipitation in ERAI cannot yet be compared with observations. With the recently released NASA Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM; Skofronick-Jackson et al. 2017 ) radar–microwave radiometer combined product ( Grecu et al. 2016 ), this may change in the near future. However, the work presented here focused on the relative similarities and differences in the precipitation generated by the convection schemes for ERAI, the GCMs, and WRF and examined if the differences affected the link between

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Yi-Hung Kuo, Kathleen A. Schiro, and J. David Neelin

field ( Tao and Moncrieff 2009 ; Yano et al. 2012 ; Moncrieff et al. 2017 ). Bretherton et al. (2004) documented an empirical relationship between the column relative humidity (CRH) and precipitation over tropical oceans at daily and monthly time scales in SSM/I satellite retrievals (see also Rushley et al. 2018 ). Based on the analysis of the same satellite observations at fast time scales, Peters and Neelin (2006) noted a sharp increase in precipitation as the column-integrated water vapor

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