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J. J. Shi, W-K. Tao, T. Matsui, R. Cifelli, A. Hou, S. Lang, A. Tokay, N-Y. Wang, C. Peters-Lidard, G. Skofronick-Jackson, S. Rutledge, and W. Petersen

shortwave schemes recently added into WRF, and discussed in section 2 , were adopted to provide longwave and shortwave parameterizations that interact with the atmosphere. The planetary boundary layer parameterization for this study was the Mellor–Yamada–Janjić ( Mellor and Yamada 1982 ; coded and modified by Dr. Janjić for the NCEP Eta Model) level-2 turbulence closure model for the full range of atmospheric turbulent regimes. The surface heat and moisture fluxes (from both ocean and land) were

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Frank S. Marzano, Domenico Cimini, Tommaso Rossi, Daniele Mortari, Sabatino Di Michele, and Peter Bauer

principles is therefore fundamental for solving the inverse problem ( Rodgers 1976 , 2000 ), and to estimate the strongly state-dependent uncertainty associated with a given retrieval. In the following, the state of the atmosphere (i.e., temperature, humidity, and hydrometeor profiles) is denoted as a vector x and the multiple-channel observations from a hypothetical microwave radiometer are indicated by a vector y . The statistical link between y and x is expressed by means of Bayes’ theorem

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