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Sonja Gisinger, Andreas Dörnbrack, Vivien Matthias, James D. Doyle, Stephen D. Eckermann, Benedikt Ehard, Lars Hoffmann, Bernd Kaifler, Christopher G. Kruse, and Markus Rapp

information about the various datasets used in this study. In section 3 , we discuss specific tropospheric flow regimes and forcing conditions during DEEPWAVE. Section 4 is devoted to the tropopause layer. The stratospheric and mesospheric wind and thermal conditions providing the ambient atmospheric profiles for deep propagating gravity waves are described in section 5 . There, planetary wave activity and its impact on the location of the PNJ and the polar vortex are discussed. Special attention is

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Christoph Zülicke, Erich Becker, Vivien Matthias, Dieter H. W. Peters, Hauke Schmidt, Han-Li Liu, Laura de la Torre Ramos, and Daniel M. Mitchell

) and 0.66 for the three-level estimate ( Fig. 7d ). Both datasets ( Figs. 7b,d ) indicate an influence of deep easterlies on mesospheric couplings. Without further documentation we add here a note on the impact of planetary wave structures. To conceptually model such height-dependent and longitude-dependent wind fields, we first calculate the GW propagation at every longitude and then take the zonal mean over the mesospheric GW phase speed. From studies with synthetic stratospheric zonal wind

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Andreas Dörnbrack

by a series of papers: Matthias et al. (2016) , Manney and Lawrence (2016) , Dörnbrack et al. (2017) , and Voigt et al. (2018) . The Arctic polar vortex was very stable and extremely cold in the early phase until end of December 2015. Afterward, planetary wave activity displaced the vortex off the pole and weakened its strength (see the appendix ). The period in the middle of January 2016 belongs to one of the early planetary wave disturbances shifting the vortex center toward Iceland. The

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Gergely Bölöni, Bruno Ribstein, Jewgenija Muraschko, Christine Sgoff, Junhong Wei, and Ulrich Achatz

– 98 , doi: 10.3137/ao.410105 . Limpasuvan , V. , J. H. Richter , Y. Orsolinic , F. Stordald , and O. Kvisseld , 2012 : The roles of planetary and gravity waves during a major stratospheric sudden warming as characterized in WACCM . J. Atmos. Sol.-Terr. Phys. , 78–79 , 84 – 98 , doi: 10.1016/j.jastp.2011.03.004 . Lindzen , R. S. , 1981 : Turbulence and stress owing to gravity wave and tidal breakdown . J. Geophys. Res. , 86 , 9707 – 9714 , doi: 10.1029/JC086iC10p09707

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Jannik Wilhelm, T. R. Akylas, Gergely Bölöni, Junhong Wei, Bruno Ribstein, Rupert Klein, and Ulrich Achatz

1. Introduction Internal gravity waves (GWs) play a significant role in atmospheric dynamics on various spatial scales ( Fritts and Alexander 2003 ; Kim et al. 2003 ; Alexander et al. 2010 ; Plougonven and Zhang 2014 ). Already in the lower atmosphere GW effects are manifold. Examples include the triggering of high-impact weather (e.g., Zhang et al. 2001 , 2003 ) and clear-air turbulence ( Koch et al. 2005 ), as well as the effect of small-scale GWs of orographic origin on the predicted

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Benedikt Ehard, Peggy Achtert, Andreas Dörnbrack, Sonja Gisinger, Jörg Gumbel, Mikhail Khaplanov, Markus Rapp, and Johannes Wagner

), which turn out to be periods when mountain waves were excited by the flow across the Scandinavian mountain ridge. These perturbations are correlated with an enhanced tropospheric wind and a jet stream near the tropopause ( Fig. 2b ). Most noticeable are the downward-propagating wind anomalies in the period 3–4 December 2013. The upper-stratospheric and mesospheric winds show a remarkable variability, which probably results from planetary waves disturbing the polar vortex during this period. Fig . 2

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Junhong Wei, Gergely Bölöni, and Ulrich Achatz

, 1103 – 1124 , . 10.1002/qj.637 Andrews , D. G. , and M. E. McIntyre , 1976 : Planetary waves in horizontal and vertical shear: The generalized Eliassen-Palm relation and the mean zonal acceleration . J. Atmos. Sci. , 33 , 2031 – 2048 ,<2031:PWIHAV>2.0.CO;2 . 10.1175/1520-0469(1976)033<2031:PWIHAV>2.0.CO;2 Andrews , D. G. , and M. E. McIntyre , 1978 : An exact theory of nonlinear waves on a Lagrangian

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Tanja C. Portele, Andreas Dörnbrack, Johannes S. Wagner, Sonja Gisinger, Benedikt Ehard, Pierre-Dominique Pautet, and Markus Rapp

linear mountain-wave theory ( Smith 1979 ). Moreover, there are numerous numerical studies about transiently forced mountain waves. Lott and Teitelbaum (1993a , b ) investigated the wave dynamics in a 2D linear time-dependent model with transient incident stably stratified flow. Chen et al. (2005 , 2007 ) and Hills and Durran (2012) extended the work of Lott and Teitelbaum (1993a , b ) and studied the impact of the flow of a time-dependent barotropic planetary square wave in a uniformly

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David C. Fritts, Ronald B. Smith, Michael J. Taylor, James D. Doyle, Stephen D. Eckermann, Andreas Dörnbrack, Markus Rapp, Bifford P. Williams, P.-Dominique Pautet, Katrina Bossert, Neal R. Criddle, Carolyn A. Reynolds, P. Alex Reinecke, Michael Uddstrom, Michael J. Revell, Richard Turner, Bernd Kaifler, Johannes S. Wagner, Tyler Mixa, Christopher G. Kruse, Alison D. Nugent, Campbell D. Watson, Sonja Gisinger, Steven M. Smith, Ruth S. Lieberman, Brian Laughman, James J. Moore, William O. Brown, Julie A. Haggerty, Alison Rockwell, Gregory J. Stossmeister, Steven F. Williams, Gonzalo Hernandez, Damian J. Murphy, Andrew R. Klekociuk, Iain M. Reid, and Jun Ma

, temperatures, and turbulence from ∼30 to 100 km and enabled studies of energy dissipation rates due to GW breaking, MW filtering during a stratospheric warming, and anomalous MLT mean structure accompanying strong planetary waves (PWs) in the Southern Hemisphere and other dynamics (e.g., Rapp et al. 2004 ; Wang et al. 2006 ; Goldberg et al. 2006 ). Multiple types of radars have quantified GW amplitudes, scales, spectral character, momentum fluxes, and evidence of various interaction and instability

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Andreas Dörnbrack, Sonja Gisinger, Michael C. Pitts, Lamont R. Poole, and Marion Maturilli

the Arctic stratospheric vortex were unusually cold ( Fig. 3 ). In November–December 2015, the Arctic vortex was minimally disturbed by upward-propagating planetary waves ( Matthias et al. 2016 ) and the polar cap minimum temperature T MIN between 65° and 90°N dropped well below the climatological mean. The red T MIN line in Fig. 3 reveals that the threshold of T NAT at 50 hPa was already reached at the beginning of December 2015, and T MIN dropped below T FROST at the end of 2015

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