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Magdalena Andres, Ruth C. Musgrave, Daniel L. Rudnick, Kristin L. Zeiden, Thomas Peacock, and Jae-Hun Park

-kHz ping’s echo off the sea surface (heavy black curve), which is at η ( t ). It does not detect the weaker echoes from the pycnocline (thin black curve); however, pycnocline displacements d ( t ) do influence echoes’ round-trip travel time τ via the dependence of the sound speed profile c ( z , t ) on temperature and salinity profiles. Figure not to scale (i.e., η is typically tens of centimeters while d is tens of meters; e.g., Gill and Niiler 1973 ). The total (time varying) distance

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Hui Wu

the monthly winds from the European Center for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF). A 3D primitive equation numerical model was configured by Wu et al. (2011) to simulate the circulation in the ECS. The model domain covered the entire ECS and adjacent waters. The model has been extensively validated against in situ salinity, temperature, currents, and tide data and has shown reasonable capabilities (see Wu et al. 2011 , 2014 ). In this study the model was run with climatological monthly

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Madeleine M. Hamann, Matthew H. Alford, Andrew J. Lucas, Amy F. Waterhouse, and Gunnar Voet

, the following conventions are used: 〈 X 〉 is the tidal average of variable X ; X ¯ is the depth average of variable X ; X n is the mode- n component of variable X , where n is mode number (see below); X o is the space and time average of variable X ; and X int is the depth-integrated value of variable X . b. Isopycnal displacement After converting measurements of temperature, conductivity, and pressure into salinity and density, isopycnal displacement η is computed at each

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