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Paul Poli, Dick P. Dee, Roger Saunders, Viju O. John, Peter Rayer, Jörg Schulz, Kenneth Holmlund, Dorothee Coppens, Dieter Klaes, James E. Johnson, Asghar E. Esfandiari, Irina V. Gerasimov, Emily B. Zamkoff, Atheer F. Al-Jazrawi, David Santek, Mirko Albani, Pascal Brunel, Karsten Fennig, Marc Schröder, Shinya Kobayashi, Dieter Oertel, Wolfgang Döhler, Dietrich Spänkuch, and Stephan Bojinski

Abstract

To better understand the impacts of climate change, environmental monitoring capabilities must be enhanced by deploying additional and more accurate satellite- and ground-based (including in situ) sensors. In addition, reanalysis of observations collected decades ago but long forgotten can unlock precious information about the recent past. Historical, in situ observations mainly cover densely inhabited areas and frequently traveled routes. In contrast, large selections of early meteorological satellite data, waiting to be exploited today, provide information about remote areas unavailable from any other source. When initially collected, these satellite data posed great challenges to transmission and archiving facilities. As a result, data access was limited to the main teams of scientific investigators associated with the instruments. As archive media have aged, so have the mission scientists and other pioneers of satellite meteorology, who sometimes retired in possession of unique and unpublished information.

This paper presents examples of recently recovered satellite data records, including satellite imagery, early infrared hyperspectral soundings, and early microwave humidity soundings. Their value for climate applications today can be realized using methods and techniques that were not yet available when the data were first collected, including efficient and accurate observation simulators and data assimilation into reanalyses. Modern technical infrastructure allows serving entire mission datasets online, enabling easy access and exploration by a broad range of users, including new and old generations of climate scientists.

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Roberto Buizza, Paul Poli, Michel Rixen, Magdalena Alonso-Balmaseda, Michael G. Bosilovich, Stefan Brönnimann, Gilbert P. Compo, Dick P. Dee, Franco Desiato, Marie Doutriaux-Boucher, Masatomo Fujiwara, Andrea K. Kaiser-Weiss, Shinya Kobayashi, Zhiquan Liu, Simona Masina, Pierre-Philippe Mathieu, Nick Rayner, Carolin Richter, Sonia I. Seneviratne, Adrian J. Simmons, Jean-Noel Thépaut, Jeffrey D. Auger, Michel Bechtold, Ellen Berntell, Bo Dong, Michal Kozubek, Khaled Sharif, Christopher Thomas, Semjon Schimanke, Andrea Storto, Matthias Tuma, Ilona Välisuo, and Alireza Vaselali
Open access
Roberto Buizza, Stefan Brönnimann, Leopold Haimberger, Patrick Laloyaux, Matthew J. Martin, Manuel Fuentes, Magdalena Alonso-Balmaseda, Andreas Becker, Michael Blaschek, Per Dahlgren, Eric de Boisseson, Dick Dee, Marie Doutriaux-Boucher, Xiangbo Feng, Viju O. John, Keith Haines, Sylvie Jourdain, Yuki Kosaka, Daniel Lea, Florian Lemarié, Michael Mayer, Palmira Messina, Coralie Perruche, Philippe Peylin, Jounie Pullainen, Nick Rayner, Elke Rustemeier, Dinand Schepers, Roger Saunders, Jörg Schulz, Alexander Sterin, Sebastian Stichelberger, Andrea Storto, Charles-Emmanuel Testut, Maria-Antóonia Valente, Arthur Vidard, Nicolas Vuichard, Anthony Weaver, James While, and Markus Ziese

Abstract

The European Reanalysis of Global Climate Observations 2 (ERA-CLIM2) is a European Union Seventh Framework Project started in January 2014 and due to be completed in December 2017. It aims to produce coupled reanalyses, which are physically consistent datasets describing the evolution of the global atmosphere, ocean, land surface, cryosphere, and the carbon cycle. ERA-CLIM2 has contributed to advancing the capacity for producing state-of-the-art climate reanalyses that extend back to the early twentieth century. ERA-CLIM2 has led to the generation of the first European ensemble of coupled ocean, sea ice, land, and atmosphere reanalyses of the twentieth century. The project has funded work to rescue and prepare observations and to advance the data-assimilation systems required to generate operational reanalyses, such as the ones planned by the European Union Copernicus Climate Change Service. This paper summarizes the main goals of the project, discusses some of its main areas of activities, and presents some of its key results.

Open access