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N. X. Rao, S. C. Ou, and K. N. Liou

Abstract

A numerical scheme has been developed to remove the solar component in the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) 3.7-µm channel for the retrieval of cirrus parameters during daytime. This method uses a number of prescribed threshold values for AVHRR channels 1 (0.63 µm), 2 (0.8 µm), 3 (3.7 µm), 4 (10.9 µm), and 5 (12 µm) to separate clear and cloudy pixels. A look-up table relating channels 1 and 3 solar reflectances is subsequently constructed based on the prescribed mean effective ice crystal sizes and satellite geometric parameters. An adding–doubling radiative transfer program has been used to generate numerical values in the construction of the look-up table. Removal of the channel 3 solar component is accomplished by using the look-up table and the measured channel 1 reflectance. The cloud retrieval scheme described in Ou et al. has been modified in connection with the removal program. The authors have applied the removal–retrieval scheme to the AVHRR global area coverage daytime data, collected during the First ISCCP (International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project) Regional Experiment cirrus intensive field observation (FIRE IFO) at 2100 UTC 28 October 1986 over the Wisconsin area. Distributions of the retrieved cloud heights and optical depths are comparable to those determined from Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite visible and IR channels data reported by Minnis et al. Morwver, verifications of the retrieved cirrus temperature and height against lidar data have been carried out using results reported from three FIRE IFO nations. The retrieved cloud heights are within 0.5 km of the measured lidar values.

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Qiang Fu, Steven K. Krueger, and K. N. Liou

Abstract

A two-dimensional cumulus ensemble model is used to study the interactions of radiation and convection in tropical squall cloud clusters. The model includes cloud-scale and mesoscale dynamics, an improved bulk ice microphysics parameterization, and an advanced interactive radiative transfer scheme. The life cycle of a tropical squall line is simulated over a 12-h period using thermodynamic and kinematic initial conditions as well as large-scale advective forcing typical of a GATE Phase III squall cluster environment. The focus is on the interaction and feedback between longwave (or IR) radiation and cloud processes.

It will be shown that clew-sky IR cooling enhances convection and, hence, surface precipitation. Simulation results reveal an increase of surface precipitation by ∼15% (∼1.7 mm) over a 12-b period due to this clear-sky cooling. With fully interactive IR radiative heating, direct destabilization of clouds via IR radiative top cooling and base warming generates more turbulence and contributes to the longevity and extent of the upper-tropospheric stratiform (anvil) clouds associated with deep convection. The greater extent of anvil clouds decreases the outgoing IR flux at the top of the atmosphere by as much as 20 W m−2.

With fully interactive IR radiative heating, the anvil cirrus reduces the IR cooling of the troposphere with respect to the clear-sky values. This cloud IR radiative forcing has a negative feedback on tropical deep convection, which will be referred to as “anvil cloud IR radiative feedback.” This feedback decreases surface precipitation by ∼10% (∼1.3 mm). It will also be shown that IR radiative processes modify the hydrometer profiles by affecting convection. On changing the cloud particle size distributions prescribed in radiation calculations, it is further demonstrated that the size distributions significantly influence the convective activity through their effects on the cloud IR radiative forcing.

The impact of clear-air IR cooling and cloud radiative forcing on deep convection is further examined by using the cloud-work function, which is a generalized number of the moist convective instability in die large-scale environment. The clear-air IR cooling tends to increase the cloud-work function, but the cloud IR radiative forcing tends to reduce it, especially for the deposit clouds.

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S. C. Ou, K. N. Liou, and J. F. King

Abstract

We have explored the applicability of the differential inversion (DI) method to temperature retrievals in both clear and cloudy atmospheres using red satellite data. The main theme of the DI is that the local Planck intensity can be exactly expressed by a linear combination of the derivatives of radiances in the logarithmic pressure coordinate. The inversion coefficients are obtained by fitting the weighting function to a generalized form. The higher-order derivatives of radiances are determined from polynomial fittings. The satellite dataset used in this work contains collocated brightness temperatures and radiosonde data that have been collected during the period of Baseline Upper Atmospheric Network (BUAN) experiments. These data include both cloudy and clear cases. A multispectral cloud-removal method using the principle of the N * method has been developed. This method uses radiances of High-Resolution Infrared Radiation Sounder channels 6, 7, and 8 to estimate clear radiances of these channels and the surface temperature simultaneously based on radiative transfer simulations. Subsequently, the quantity N * (the ratio of effective cloud cover over adjacent pixels) and the clear radiances of the rest of the channels are evaluated.

Retrieval results are presented in terms of rms temperature differences between retrieved and sounding profiles. Considering all clear and partly cloudy cases, the rms differences in temperature of approximately 2 K for retrievals using the DI are comparable to those using the minimum-variance scheme. The rms differences in temperature for retrievals using the multispectral cloud-removal scheme are slightly larger than those using the BUAN cloud-removal scheme by approximately 0.5 K. Finally, the rms temperature differences are much smaller than those for the first guess of the minimum-variance scheme. These results indicate fire that the DJ can achieve acceptable performance without first-guess or error covariance matrices; second, that the proposed multispectral cloud-removal method is also capable of generating reasonable cloud-removed clear radiances; and finally that the DI can be used as a tool to obtain first guesses in the current operational method and to perform large-volume temperature retrievals for climate studies.

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S. C. Ou, K. N. Liou, and T. R. Caudill

Abstract

Surface observations show that multilayer clouds frequently occur in frontal areas where cirrus clouds overlie boundary layer convective clouds or stratus clouds. In this paper, an algorithm is presented for the retrieval of cirrus cloud optical depths and ice crystal sizes in multilayer cloud systems based on the theory of radiative transfer and parameterizations. For the validation of the retrieval program, AVHRR data is analyzed for two dates during FIRE-II-IFO in which cirrus clouds overlie a layer of low stratus cloud. It is shown that the domain-averaged retrieved cloud temperatures are within the boundaries of cirrus clouds determined from the collocated replicator, radar, and lidar data. The retrieved ice crystal mean effective sizes and optical depths are also in general agreement with the values determined from the balloon-borne replicator and 2D probe data.

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T. P. Ackerman, K. N. Liou, and C. B. Leovy

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K. N. Liou, S. C. Ou, Y. Takano, and Q. Liu

Abstract

The delta-four-stream polarized (vector) thermal radiative transfer has been formulated and numerically tested specifically for application to satellite data assimilation in cloudy atmospheres. It is shown that for thermal emission in the earth’s atmosphere, the [I, Q] component of the Stokes vector can be decoupled from the [U, V] component and that the solution of the vector equation set involving the four-stream approximation can be expressed in an analytic form similar to the scalar case. Thus, the computer time requirement can be optimized for the simulation of forward radiances and their derivatives. Computations have been carried out to illustrate the accuracy and efficiency of this method by comparing radiance and polarization results to those computed from the exact doubling method for radiative transfer for a number of thermal infrared and microwave frequencies. Excellent agreement within 1% is shown for the radiance results for all satellite viewing angles and cloud optical depths. For polarization, differences between the two are less than 5% if brightness temperature is used in the analysis. On balance of the computational speed and accuracy, the four-stream approximation for radiative transfer appears to be an attractive means for the simulation of cloudy radiances and polarization for research and data assimilation purposes.

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B. M. Herman, T. Caudill, D. Flittner, and K. N. Liou

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No abstract available

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Y. Gu, J. Farrara, K. N. Liou, and C. R. Mechoso

Abstract

A contemporary radiation parameterization scheme has been implemented in the University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA), atmospheric GCM (AGCM). This scheme is a combination of the delta-four-stream method for solar flux transfer and the delta-two-and-four-stream method for thermal infrared flux transfer. Both methods have been demonstrated to be computationally efficient and at the same time highly accurate in comparison with exact radiative transfer computations. The correlated-k distribution method for radiative transfer has been used to represent gaseous absorption in multiple-scattering atmospheres. The single-scattering properties for ice and water clouds are parameterized in terms of ice/liquid water content and mean effective size/radius. In conjunction with the preceding radiative scheme, parameterizations for fractional cloud cover and cloud vertical overlap have also been devised in the model in which the cloud amount is determined from the total cloud water mixing ratio. For radiation calculation purposes, the model clouds are vertically grouped in terms of low, middle, and high types. Maximum overlap is first used for each cloud type, followed by random overlap among the three cloud types. The preceding radiation and cloud parameterizations are incorporated into the UCLA AGCM, and it is shown that the simulated cloud cover and outgoing longwave radiation fields without any special tuning are comparable with those of International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP) dataset and derived from radiation budget experiments. The use of the new radiation and cloud schemes enhances the radiative warming in the mid- to upper tropical troposphere and alleviates the cold bias that is common to many AGCMs. Sensitivity studies show that ice crystal size and cloud inhomogeneity significantly affect the radiation budget at the top of the atmosphere and the earth’s surface.

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S. C. Ou, K. N. Liou, and B. A. Baum

Abstract

A numerical scheme has been developed to identify multilayer cirrus cloud systems using Advanced Very Higher Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) data. It is based on the physical properties of the AVHRR channels 1–2 reflectance ratios, the brightness temperature differences between channels 4 and 5, and the channel 4 brightness temperatures. In this scheme, clear pixels are first separated from cloudy pixels, which are then classified into three types: cirrus, cirrus/low cloud, and low clouds. The authors have applied this scheme to the satellite data collected over the FIRE II IFO [First ISCCP (International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project) Regional Experiment II intensive field observations area during nine overseas within seven observation dates. Determination of the threshold values used in the detection scheme are based on statistical analysts of these satellite data. The authors have validated the detection results against the cloudy conditions inferred from the collocated and coincident ground-based lidar and radar images, balloonborne replicator data, and National Center for Atmospheric Research CLASS (Cross-chain Loran Atmospheric Sounding System) humidity soundings on a case-by-case basis. In every case, the satellite detection results are consistent with the cloudy conditions inferred from these independent and complementary measurement. The present scheme is well suited for the detection of midlatitude, multilayer cirrus cloud systems and tropical anvils.

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Brian Barkey, K. N. Liou, Werner Gellerman, and Pierre Sokolsky

Abstract

An experimental apparatus to measure the scattering properties of hexagonal icelike particles in the analog manner at the helium neon laser wavelength of 0.633 μm has been designed and built. The instrument consists of an array of 36 highly sensitive and linear photodiode detectors that are positioned to measure the light between the scattering angles of 2.8° and 177.2° in approximately 2.5° increments and at any desired azimuthal angle. This array is calibrated such that the retrieved light signals are corrected to the actual light seen by the detectors to within approximately 6% at all applicable scattering and azimuthal angles. A system of electro-mechanical positioners places the sample at the desired and known position. A glass sphere and a glass fiber configured to scatter light like an infinite cylinder was used to test the operational effectiveness and calibration of the experimental apparatus. The phase functions for the parallel and perpendicular components determined from the experimental results match closely with the results computed from Mie theory.

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