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Quan Liu, Jiannong Quan, Xingcan Jia, Zhaobin Sun, Xia Li, Yang Gao, and Yangang Liu

Abstract

Aerosol samples were collected over Beijing, China, during several flights in November 2011. Aerosol composition of nonrefractory submicron particles (NR-PM1) was measured by an Aerodyne compact time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer (C-ToF-AMS). This measurement on the aircraft provided vertical distribution of aerosol species over Beijing, including sulfate (SO4), nitrate (NO3), ammonium (NH4), chloride (Chl), and organic aerosols [OA; hydrocarbon-like OA (HOA) and oxygenated OA (OOA)]. The observations showed that aerosol compositions varied drastically with altitude, especially near the top of the planetary boundary layer (PBL). On average, organics (34%) and nitrate (32%) were dominant components in the PBL, followed by ammonium (15%), sulfate (14%), and chloride (4%); in the free troposphere (FT), sulfate (34%) and organics (28%) were dominant components, followed by ammonium (20%), nitrate (19%), and chloride (1%). The dominant OA species was primarily HOA in the PBL but changed to OOA in the FT. For sulfate, nitrate, and ammonium, the sulfate mass fraction increased from the PBL to the FT, nitrate mass fraction decreased, and ammonium remained relatively constant. Analysis of the sulfate-to-nitrate molar ratio further indicated that this ratio was usually less than one in the FT but larger than one in the PBL. Further analysis revealed that the vertical aerosol composition profiles were influenced by complex processes, including PBL structure, regional transportation, emission variation, and the aging process of aerosols and gaseous precursors during vertical diffusion.

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Baojun Chen, Jun Yang, Ruiquan Gao, Keping Zhu, Chungen Zou, Yi Gong, and Ran Zhang

Abstract

Raindrop size distribution (DSD) characteristics at various altitudes in two landfalling typhoons in 2017 (Hato and Pakhar) were investigated by using laser-optical disdrometers mounted at four altitudes (10, 40, 160, and 320 m) of the Shenzhen 356-m meteorological tower. Significant differences of the DSD and derived parameters, mass-weighted mean diameter (D m), normalized intercept parameter (N W), and standard deviation of the mass distribution σ m, were observed at different altitudes for the two typhoons, while the rainwater content between the four altitudes had no statistically significant differences. The low-altitude DSDs had more midsize drops (1 < D < 3 mm), fewer large drops (D > 3 mm), and narrower distribution widths than the high-altitude ones, while the concentration of small drops varied nonlinearly with height. The value of N W decreased with height, while D m and σ m increased with height. The gamma distribution parameters N 0, μ, and Λ are found to increase with decreasing height. Both the derived μ–Λ and ZR relations were significantly varied in different altitudes.

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Zongting Gao, Zeng-Zhen Hu, Jieshun Zhu, Song Yang, Rong-Hua Zhang, Ziniu Xiao, and Bhaskar Jha

Abstract

In this work, the variability of summer [June–August (JJA)] rainfall in northeast China is examined and its predictors are identified based on observational analyses and atmospheric modeling experiments. At interannual time scales, the summer rainfall anomaly in northeast China is significantly correlated with the rainfall anomaly over the Huang-Huai region (32°–38°N, 105°–120°E) in late spring (April–May). Compared with climatology, an earlier (later) rainy season in the Huang-Huai region favors a wet (dry) summer in northeast China. Also, this connection has strengthened since the late 1970s. In addition to the impact of the sea surface temperature anomaly (SSTA) in the tropical Indian Ocean, the local soil moisture anomalies caused by the rainfall anomaly in the Huang-Huai region in late spring generate summer general circulation anomalies, which contribute to the rainfall anomaly in northeast China. As a result, when compared with the SSTA, the rainfall anomaly in the Huang-Huai region in late spring can be used as another and even better predictor for the summer rainfall anomaly in northeast China.

The results from atmospheric general circulation model experiments forced by observed SST confirm the diagnostic results to some extent, including the connection of the rainfall anomaly between the Huang-Huai region in April–May and northeastern China in JJA as well as the influence from SSTA in the tropical Indian Ocean. It is shown that eliminating the internal dynamical processes by using the ensemble mean intensifies the connection, implying that the connection of rainfall variation in the two different seasons/regions may be partially caused by the external forcing (e.g., SSTA in the tropical Indian Ocean).

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Joonsuk Lee, Ping Yang, Andrew E. Dessler, Bo-Cai Gao, and Steven Platnick

Abstract

To understand the radiative impact of tropical thin cirrus clouds, the frequency of occurrence and optical depths of these clouds have been derived. “Thin” cirrus clouds are defined here as being those that are not detected by the operational Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) cloud mask, corresponding to an optical depth value of approximately 0.3 or smaller, but that are detectable in terms of the cirrus reflectance product based on the MODIS 1.375-μm channel. With such a definition, thin cirrus clouds were present in more than 40% of the pixels flagged as “clear sky” by the operational MODIS cloud mask algorithm. It is shown that these thin cirrus clouds are frequently observed in deep convective regions in the western Pacific. Thin cirrus optical depths were derived from the cirrus reflectance product. Regions of significant cloud fraction and large optical depths were observed in the Northern Hemisphere during the boreal spring and summer and moved southward during the boreal autumn and winter. The radiative effects of tropical thin cirrus clouds were studied on the basis of the retrieved cirrus optical depths, the atmospheric profiles derived from the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) observations, and a radiative transfer model in conjunction with a parameterization of ice cloud spectral optical properties. To understand how these clouds regulate the radiation field in the atmosphere, the instantaneous net fluxes at the top of the atmosphere (TOA) and at the surface were calculated. The present study shows positive and negative net forcings at the TOA and at the surface, respectively. The positive (negative) net forcing at the TOA (surface) is due to the dominance of longwave (shortwave) forcing. Both the TOA and surface forcings are in a range of 0–20 W m−2, depending on the optical depths of thin cirrus clouds.

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Li Yaodong, Wang Yun, Song Yang, Hu Liang, Gao Shouting, and Rong Fu

Abstract

Summer convective systems (CSs) initiated over the Tibetan Plateau identified by the International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP) deep convection database and associated Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) precipitation for 1998–2001 have been analyzed for their basic characteristics in terms of initiation, distribution, trajectory, development, life cycle, convective intensity, and precipitation. Summer convective systems have a dominant center over the Hengduan Mountain and a secondary center over the Yaluzangbu River Valley. Precipitation associated with these CSs contributes more than 60% of total precipitation over the central-eastern area of the Tibetan Plateau and 30%–40% over the adjacent region to its southeast. The average CS life cycle is about 36 h; 85% of CSs disappear within 60 h of their initiation. About 50% of CSs do not move out of the Tibetan region, with the remainder split into eastward- and southward-moving components. These CSs moving out the Tibetan Plateau are generally larger, have longer life spans, and produce more rainfall than those staying inside the region. Convective system occurrences and associated rainfall present robust diurnal variations. The midafternoon maximum of CS initiation and associated rainfall over the plateau is mainly induced by solar heating linked to the unique Tibetan geography. The delayed afternoon–late night peak of rainfall from CSs propagating out of this region is a combined outcome of multiple mechanisms working together. Results suggest that interactions of summer Tibetan CSs with the orientation of the unique Tibetan geography and the surrounding atmospheric circulations are important for the development, intensification, propagation, and life span of these CSs.

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Jingzhi Su, Huijun Wang, Haijun Yang, Helge Drange, Yongqi Gao, and Mats Bentsen

Abstract

A coupled climate model is used to explore the response of the tropical sea surface temperature (SST) to positive SST anomalies in the global extratropics. The main model results here are consistent with previous numerical studies. In response to prescribed SST anomalies in the extratropics, the tropical SSTs rise rapidly and reach a quasi-equilibrium state within several years, and the tropical subsurface temperatures show a slow response. The annual-mean Hadley cell, as well as the surface trades, are weakened. The weakened trades reduce the poleward Ekman transports in the tropical ocean and, furthermore, lead to anomalous positive convergences of heat transport, which is the main mechanism for maintaining the tropical Pacific SST warming.

The process of an extratropical influence on the tropics is related to both the atmospheric and oceanic circulations. The intertropical convergence zone (ITCZ) moves southward and eastward in the Pacific, corresponding to a reduction of the Hadley circulation and Walker circulation. At the same time, convective precipitation anomalies are formed on the boundary of the climatological ITCZ, while the climatological mean convections centered in the Southeast Asia region are suppressed. The largely delayed response of the tropical subsurface temperature cannot be explained only by the strength change of the subtropical cells (STCs), but can be traced back to the slow changing of subsurface temperature in the extratropics. In the extratropical oceans, warming and freshening reduce the surface water density, and the outcropping lines of certain isopycnal layers are moved poleward. This poleward movement of outcropping lines can weaken the positive temperature anomalies, or even lead to negative anomalies, on given isopycnal layers. Displayed on time-dependent isopycnal layers, positive subsurface temperature anomalies are present only in the region after subduction, and are subsequently replaced by negative temperature anomalies in the deep tropics regions. The noticeable features of the density compensation of temperature and salinity indicate that diapycnal processes play an important role in the equatorward transport of the temperature and salinity anomalies from the midlatitude.

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Liang Chang, Shiqiang Wen, Guoping Gao, Zhen Han, Guiping Feng, and Yang Zhang

Abstract

Characteristics of temperature inversions (TIs) and specific humidity inversions (SHIs) and their relationships in three of the latest global reanalyses—the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts Interim Reanalysis (ERA-I), the Japanese 55-year Reanalysis (JRA-55), and the ERA5—are assessed against in situ radiosonde (RS) measurements from two expeditions over the Arctic Ocean. All reanalyses tend to detect many fewer TI and SHI occurrences, together with much less common multiple TIs and SHIs per profile than are seen in the RS data in summer 2008, winter 2015, and spring 2015. The reanalyses generally depict well the relationships among TI characteristics seen in RS data, except for the TIs below 400 m in summer, as well as above 1000 m in summer and winter. The depth is simulated worst by the reanalyses among the SHI characteristics, which may result from its sensitivity to the uncertainties in specific humidity in the reanalyses. The strongest TI per profile in RS data exhibits more robust dependency on surface conditions than the strongest SHI per profile, and the former is better presented by the reanalyses than the latter. Furthermore, all reanalyses have difficulties simulating the relationships between TIs and SHIs, together with the correlations between the simultaneous inversions. The accuracy and vertical resolution in the reanalyses are both important to properly capture occurrence and characteristics of the Arctic inversions. In general, ERA5 performs better than ERA-I and JRA-55 in depicting the relationships among the TIs. However, the representation of SHIs is more challenging than TIs in all reanalyses over the Arctic Ocean.

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Miaoni Gao, Jing Yang, Daoyi Gong, Peijun Shi, Zhangang Han, and Seong-Joong Kim

Abstract

The frequency and intensity of extreme high temperature (EHT) in the Northern Hemisphere exhibit remarkable low-frequency (LF) variations (longer than 10 years) in summer during 1951–2017. Five hotspots featuring large LF variations in EHT were identified, including western North America–Mexico, eastern Siberia, Europe, central Asia, and the Mongolian Plateau. The probability density functions show that the higher EHT occurrences over these hotspots in recent decades is consistent with the shifted average and increased variances in daily mean temperature. The common features of the LF variation in EHT frequency over all domains are the remarkable increasing trends and evident decadal to multidecadal variations. The component of decadal to multidecadal variations is the main contribution to the LF variations of temperature in the last century. Further analysis shows that the coherent variability of decadal to multidecadal temperature variations over western North America–Mexico, eastern Siberia, Europe, and the Mongolian Plateau are the footprints of a dominant natural internal signal: the Atlantic multidecadal oscillation. It contributes to the variations in temperature over these hotspots via barotropic circumglobal teleconnection, which imposes striking anomalous pressure over these regions. This study implies that natural internal variability plays an important role in making hotspots more vulnerable to EHT.

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Xingru Feng, Junchuan Sun, Dezhou Yang, Baoshu Yin, Guandong Gao, and Weiqi Wan

Abstract

Reasonable parameterization of air–sea momentum flux is important for the accuracy of ocean and atmosphere simulations, and in the numerical model, the parameterization of the air–sea momentum flux becomes a problem of parameterization of the sea surface wind stress drag coefficient (Cd). In this study, five kinds of typical Cd parameterization methods were assessed in the simulation of two typhoon cases, one of which was a supertyphoon and another was a common severe typhoon, based on an atmosphere–wave–ocean coupled model. Based on the two case studies, it was found that the typhoon path and minimum sea level pressure were not very sensitive to Cd parameterizations, though the spatial distribution of Cd and its variation with wind speed were all very different across the parameterization methods. However, Cd has a significant effect on the wind speed, and at high wind speed, the simulated maximum wind speed compared better with the observation in the experiment that adopted the Cd calculation method considering the effects of sea spray. Also, Cd plays an important role in the feedback processes between atmosphere and ocean during the typhoon process, through its effect on the air–sea heat and momentum flux, SST, ocean mixed layer depth, ocean currents, etc. The results of this study answered the question of how the Cd affects the atmosphere and ocean during the typhoon process, and to what extent they are affected, which can help to explain or even further improve the simulation results.

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Guan Dong Gao, Xiao Hua Wang, Dehai Song, Xianwen Bao, Bao Shu Yin, De Zhou Yang, Yang Ding, Haoqian Li, Fang Hou, and Zhaopeng Ren

Abstract

Wave–current interactions are crucial to suspended-sediment dynamics, but the roles of the associated physical mechanisms, the depth-dependent wave radiation stress, Stokes drift velocity, vertical transfer of wave-generated pressure transfer to the mean momentum equation (form drag), wave dissipation as a source term in the turbulence kinetic energy equation, and mean current advection and refraction of wave energy, have not yet been fully understood. Therefore, in this study, a computationally fast wave model developed by Mellor et al., a Finite Volume Coastal Ocean Model (FVCOM) hydrodynamics model, and the sediment model developed by the University of New South Wales are two-way coupled to study the effect of each wave–current interaction mechanism on suspended-sediment dynamics near shore during strong wave events in a tidally dominated and semiclosed bay, Jiaozhou Bay, as a case study. Comparison of Geostationary Ocean Color Imager data and model results demonstrates that the inclusion of just the combined wave–current bottom stress in the model, as done in most previous studies, is clearly far from adequate to model accurately the suspended-sediment dynamics. The effect of each mechanism in the wave–current coupled processes is also investigated separately through numerical simulations. It is found that, even though the combined wave–current bottom stress has the largest effect, the combined effect of the other wave–current interactions, mean current advection and refraction of wave energy, wave radiation stress, and form drag (from largest to smallest effect), are comparable. These mechanisms can cause significant variation in the current velocities, vertical mixing, and even the bottom stress, and should obviously be paid more attention when modeling suspended-sediment dynamics during strong wave events.

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