Search Results

You are looking at 21 - 30 of 41 items for

  • Author or Editor: David Karoly x
  • All content x
Clear All Modify Search
David J. Karoly, R. Alan Plumb, and Mingfang Ting

Abstract

Examples of the diagnostic of the horizontal propagation of stationary wave activity proposed by Plumb are presented for a simple model of the atmospheric response to thermal forcing in the tropics, for the observed Southern Hemisphere winter mean stationary waves and for several cases of anomalous quasi-stationary waves in both the Northern and Southern hemispheres. For the simple model, the propagation of wave activity out of the tropics is clear. From the observational data, the apparent sources of anomalous stationary wave activity are located in the regions of the major middle latitude jets and storm tracks in both hemispheres in most cases. The results suggest that midlatitude processes, such as instabilities of the jet stream or interaction with transient eddies, are the major mechanisms for forcing anomalous stationary waves. There are indications that Rossby-like wave propagation from low latitudes plays a role in forcing anomalous stationary waves associated with Southern Oscillation events and with some cases of anomalous stationary waves in the Southern Hemisphere.

Full access
Greg C. Tyrrell, David J. Karoly, and John L. McBride

Abstract

Data from the Intensive Observation Period of the Tropical Ocean Global Atmosphere Coupled Ocean-Atmosphere Response Experiment (November 1992–February 1993) have been used to investigate the links between intraseasonal variations in tropical convection and those in forcing of upper-tropospheric Rossby waves in the extratropics. The primary databases are Geostationary Meteorological Satellite imagery and tropical wind analyses from the Bureau of Meteorology, Australia. A number of 5-day periods showing convection in different locations were chosen. For each period, mean fields of divergence, cloud-top temperature, and upper-tropospheric Rossby wave source are presented. Vorticity budgets are used to demonstrate the processes responsible for the Rossby wave source patterns. The approach follows earlier studies of links between interannual variations of tropical convection associated with the Southern Oscillation and variations of the extratropical circulation.

It is shown that the regions of tropical convection correspond to longitudinally localized Hadley cells. In the subtropics, at the higher-latitude end of each cell, there is a Rossby wave source dipole with anticyclonic and cyclonic forcing. The anticyclonic forcing of Rossby waves is associated with advection of vorticity by the divergent outflow, while the cyclonic forcing is due to the region of convergence immediately above the down-ward branch of the local Hadley cell. Hence, the authors provide a dynamical basis for tropical-midlatitude interactions associated with intraseasonal variations of tropical convection.

Full access
Diandong Ren, David J. Karoly, and Lance M. Leslie

Abstract

The temperate glaciers in the greater Himalayas (GH) and the neighboring region contribute to the freshwater supply for almost one-half of the people on earth. Under global warming conditions, the GH glaciers may melt more rapidly than high-latitude glaciers, owing to the coincidence of the accumulation and ablation seasons in summer. Based on a first-order energy balance approach for glacier thermodynamics, the possible imposed additional melting rate was estimated from three climate simulations using the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory Global Coupled Climate Model version 2.1 (GFDL-CM2.1), the Model for Interdisciplinary Research on Climate 3.2, high-resolution version (MIROC3.2-hires), and the Met Office’s Third Hadley Centre Coupled Ocean–Atmosphere General Circulation Model (HadCM3). The simulations were carried out under the Special Report on Emissions Scenarios (SRES) A1B scenario. For the 30-yr period of 2001–30, all three CGCMs indicate that the glacial regions most sensitive to regional warming are the Tianshan–Altai Mountains to the north and Hengduan Mountains to the south. A map of potential melting was produced and was used to calculate the glacier-melting speed, yielding an additional spatially averaged glacier depth reduction of approximately 2 m for the 2001–30 period for those areas located below 4000 m. Averaged over the entire GH region, the melting rate is accelerating at about 5 mm yr−2. The general circulation over the GH region was found to have clear multidecadal variability, with the 30-yr period of 2001–30 likely to be wetter than the previous 30-yr period of 1971–2000. Considering the possible trend in precipitation from snow to rain, the actual melting rates of the GH glaciers may even be larger than those obtained in this research.

Full access
Andrew D. King, David J. Karoly, and Geert Jan van Oldenborgh
Full access
Jonty D. Hall, Adrian J. Matthews, and David J. Karoly

Abstract

The observed relationship between tropical cyclone activity in the Australian region and the Madden–Julian oscillation (MJO) has been examined using 20 yr of outgoing longwave radiation, NCEP–NCAR reanalysis, and best track tropical cyclone data. The MJO strongly modulates the climatological pattern of cyclogenesis in the Australian region, where significantly more (fewer) cyclones form in the active (inactive) phase of the MJO. This modulation is more pronounced to the northwest of Australia. The relationship between tropical cyclone activity and the MJO was strengthened during El Niño periods. Variations of the large-scale dynamical conditions necessary for cyclogenesis were explored, and it was found that MJO-induced perturbations of these parameters correspond with the observed variation in cyclone activity. In particular, 850-hPa relative vorticity anomalies attributable to the MJO were found to be an excellent diagnostic of the changes in the large-scale cyclogenesis patterns.

Full access
Karin L. Gleason, Jay H. Lawrimore, David H. Levinson, Thomas R. Karl, and David J. Karoly

Abstract

A revised framework is presented that quantifies observed changes in the climate of the contiguous United States through analysis of a revised version of the U.S. Climate Extremes Index (CEI). The CEI is based on a set of climate extremes indicators that measure the fraction of the area of the United States experiencing extremes in monthly mean surface temperature, daily precipitation, and drought (or moisture surplus). In the revised CEI, auxiliary station data, including recently digitized pre-1948 data, are incorporated to extend it further back in time and to improve spatial coverage. The revised CEI is updated for the period from 1910 to the present in near–real time and is calculated for eight separate seasons, or periods.

Results for the annual revised CEI are similar to those from the original CEI. Observations over the past decade continue to support the finding that the area experiencing much above-normal maximum and minimum temperatures in recent years has been on the rise, with infrequent occurrence of much below- normal mean maximum and minimum temperatures. Conversely, extremes in much below-normal mean maximum and minimum temperatures indicate a decline from about 1910 to 1930. An increasing trend in the area experiencing much above-normal proportion of heavy daily precipitation is observed from about 1950 to the present. A period with a much greater-than-normal number of days without precipitation is also noted from about 1910 to the mid-1930s. Warm extremes in mean maximum and minimum temperature observed during the summer and warm seasons show a more pronounced increasing trend since the mid-1970s. Results from the winter season show large variability in extremes and little evidence of a trend. The cold season CEI indicates an increase in extremes since the early 1970s yet has large multidecadal variability.

Full access
David J. Karoly, Mitchell T. Black, Andrew D. King, and Michael R. Grose
Full access
Ailie J. E. Gallant, Steven J. Phipps, David J. Karoly, A. Brett Mullan, and Andrew M. Lorrey

Abstract

The stationarity of relationships between local and remote climates is a necessary, yet implicit, assumption underlying many paleoclimate reconstructions. However, the assumption is tenuous for many seasonal relationships between interannual variations in the El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and the southern annular mode (SAM) and Australasian precipitation and mean temperatures. Nonstationary statistical relationships between local and remote climates on the 31–71-yr time scale, defined as a change in their strength and/or phase outside that expected from local climate noise, are detected on near-centennial time scales from instrumental data, climate model simulations, and paleoclimate proxies.

The relationships between ENSO and SAM and Australasian precipitation were nonstationary at 21%–37% of Australasian stations from 1900 to 2009 and strongly covaried, suggesting common modulation. Control simulations from three coupled climate models produce ENSO-like and SAM-like patterns of variability, but differ in detail to the observed patterns in Australasia. However, the model teleconnections also display nonstationarity, in some cases for over 50% of the domain. Therefore, nonstationary local–remote climatic relationships are inherent in environments regulated by internal variability. The assessments using paleoclimate reconstructions are not robust because of extraneous noise associated with the paleoclimate proxies.

Instrumental records provide the only means of calibrating and evaluating regional paleoclimate reconstructions. However, the length of Australasian instrumental observations may be too short to capture the near-centennial-scale variations in local–remote climatic relationships, potentially compromising these reconstructions. The uncertainty surrounding nonstationary teleconnections must be acknowledged and quantified. This should include interpreting nonstationarities in paleoclimate reconstructions using physically based frameworks.

Full access
Tahl S. Kestin, David J. Karoly, Jun-Ichi Yano, and Nicola A. Rayner

Abstract

The time–frequency spectral structure of El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO) time series holds much information about the physical dynamics of the ENSO system. The authors have analyzed changes of the spectrum with time of three ENSO indices: the conventional Southern Oscillation index (SOI), Niño3 sea surface temperatures, and a tropical Pacific rain index, over the period 1871–1995. Three methods of time–frequency analysis—windowed Fourier transform, wavelet analysis, and windowed Prony’s method—were used, and the results are in good agreement. The time–frequency spectra of all the series show strong multidecadal variations over the past century. In particular, there was reduced activity of ENSO in the 2–3-yr periodicity range during the period 1920–60, compared with both the earlier and later periods. The dominant frequencies in the spectra do not appear to be constrained to certain frequency bands, and there is no evidence that the ENSO system has fixed modes of oscillation.

The qualitative behavior of the real SOI time series has been compared with that of time series simulated by an autoregressive stochastic process of order 3 and time series created by phase-randomizing the spectral components of the SOI. The decadal variability of the amplitude and time–frequency spectra was found to be very similar between the observed and simulated SOIs. This suggests that the decadal variability of ENSO can be well simulated by a stochastic model and that stochastic forcing may be an important component of ENSO dynamics.

Full access
Michael R. Grose, James S. Risbey, Mitchell T. Black, and David J. Karoly
Full access