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Peter G. Black, Eric A. D'Asaro, William M. Drennan, Jeffrey R. French, Pearn P. Niiler, Thomas B. Sanford, Eric J. Terrill, Edward J. Walsh, and Jun A. Zhang

The Coupled Boundary Layer Air–Sea Transfer (CBLAST) field program, conducted from 2002 to 2004, has provided a wealth of new air–sea interaction observations in hurricanes. The wind speed range for which turbulent momentum and moisture exchange coefficients have been derived based upon direct flux measurements has been extended by 30% and 60%, respectively, from airborne observations in Hurricanes Fabian and Isabel in 2003. The drag coefficient (C D) values derived from CBLAST momentum flux measurements show C D becoming invariant with wind speed near a 23 m s−1 threshold rather than a hurricane-force threshold near 33 m s−1 . Values above 23 m s−1 are lower than previous open-ocean measurements.

The Dalton number estimates (C E) derived from CBLAST moisture flux measurements are shown to be invariant with wind speeds up to 30 m s −1 which is in approximate agreement with previous measurements at lower winds. These observations imply a C E/C D ratio of approximately 0.7, suggesting that additional energy sources are necessary for hurricanes to achieve their maximum potential intensity. One such additional mechanism for augmented moisture flux in the boundary layer might be “roll vortex” or linear coherent features, observed by CBLAST 2002 measurements to have wavelengths of 0.9–1.2 km. Linear features of the same wavelength range were observed in nearly concurrent RADARSAT Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) imagery.

As a complement to the aircraft measurement program, arrays of drifting buoys and subsurface floats were successfully deployed ahead of Hurricanes Fabian (2003) and Frances (2004) [16 (6) and 38 (14) drifters (floats), respectively, in the two storms]. An unprecedented set of observations was obtained, providing a four-dimensional view of the ocean response to a hurricane for the first time ever. Two types of surface drifters and three types of floats provided observations of surface and subsurface oceanic currents, temperature, salinity, gas exchange, bubble concentrations, and surface wave spectra to a depth of 200 m on a continuous basis before, during, and after storm passage, as well as surface atmospheric observations of wind speed (via acoustic hydrophone) and direction, rain rate, and pressure. Float observations in Frances (2004) indicated a deepening of the mixed layer from 40 to 120 m in approximately 8 h, with a corresponding decrease in SST in the right-rear quadrant of 3.2°C in 11 h, roughly one-third of an inertial period. Strong inertial currents with a peak amplitude of 1.5 m s−1 were observed. Vertical structure showed that the critical Richardson number was reached sporadically during the mixed-layer deepening event, suggesting shear-induced mixing as a prominent mechanism during storm passage. Peak significant waves of 11 m were observed from the floats to complement the aircraft-measured directional wave spectra.

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G. B. Burns, A. V. Frank-Kamenetsky, B. A. Tinsley, W. J. R. French, P. Grigioni, G. Camporeale, and E. A. Bering

Abstract

Atmospheric electric field measurements from the Concordia station on the Antarctic Plateau are compared with those from Vostok (560 km away) for the period of overlap (2009–11) and to Carnegie (1915–29) and extended Vostok (2006–11) measurements. The Antarctic data are sorted according to several sets of criteria for rejecting local variability to examine a local summer-noon influence on the measurements and to improve estimates of the global signal. The contribution of the solar wind influence is evaluated and removed from the Vostok and Concordia measurements. Simultaneous measurements yield days when the covariability of the electric field measurements at Concordia and Vostok exceeds 90%, as well as intervals when significant local variability is apparent. Days of simultaneous changes in shape and mean level of the diurnal variation, as illustrated in a 5-day sequence, can be interpreted as due to changes in the relative upward current output of the electrified cloud generators predominating at low latitudes. Smaller average local meteorological influences are removed from the larger Vostok dataset, revealing changes in the shape of monthly average diurnal variations, which are similarly attributed to changes in predominantly low-latitude convection from month to month.

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Ronald B. Smith, Justin R. Minder, Alison D. Nugent, Trude Storelvmo, Daniel J. Kirshbaum, Robert Warren, Neil Lareau, Philippe Palany, Arlington James, and Jeffrey French

The Dominica Experiment (DOMEX) took place in the eastern Caribbean from 4 April to 10 May 2011 with 21 research flights of the Wyoming King Air and several other observing systems. The goal was an improved understanding of the physics of convective orographic precipitation in the tropics. Two types of convection were found. During a period of weak trade winds, diurnal thermal convection was seen over Dominica. This convection caused little precipitation but carried aloft air with island-derived aerosol and depleted CO2. During periods of strong trades, mechanically forced convection over the windward slopes brought heavy rain to the high terrain. This convection was “seeded” by trade-wind cumuli or neutrally buoyant cool wet patches of air. In this mechanically forced convection, air parcels did not touch the island surface to gain buoyancy so no island-derived tracers were lofted. With fewer aerosols, the mean cloud droplet diameter increased from 15 to 25 μm. Plunging airflow and a wake were found in the lee of Dominica. The DOMEX dataset will advance our understanding and test our theories of cumulus triggering and aerosol influence on precipitation.

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David M. Plummer, Jeffrey R. French, David C. Leon, Alan M. Blyth, Sonia Lasher-Trapp, Lindsay J. Bennett, David R. L. Dufton, Robert C. Jackson, and Ryan R. Neely

Abstract

Analyses of the radar-observed structure and derived rainfall statistics of warm-season convection developing columns of enhanced positive differential reflectivity Z DR over England’s southwest peninsula are presented here. Previous observations of Z DR columns in developing cumulonimbus clouds over England were rare. The observations presented herein suggest otherwise, at least in the southwesterly winds over the peninsula. The results are the most extensive of their kind in the United Kingdom; the data were collected using the National Centre for Atmospheric Science dual-polarization X-band radar (NXPol) during the Convective Precipitation Experiment (COPE). In contrast to recent studies of Z DR columns focused on deep clouds that developed in high-instability environments, the COPE measurements show relatively frequent Z DR columns in shallower clouds, many only 4–5 km deep. The presence of Z DR columns is used to infer that an active warm rain process has contributed to precipitation evolution in convection deep enough for liquid and ice growth to take place. Clouds with Z DR columns were identified objectively in three COPE deployments, with both discrete convection and clouds embedded in larger convective complexes developing columns. Positive Z DR values typically extended to 1–1.25 km above 0°C in the columns, with Z DR ≥ 1 dB sometimes extending nearly 4 km above 0°C. Values above 3 dB typically occurred in the lowest 500 m above 0°C, with coincident airborne measurements confirming the presence of supercooled raindrops. Statistical analyses indicated that the convection that produced Z DR columns was consistently associated with the larger derived rainfall rates when compared with the overall convective population sampled by the NXPol during COPE.

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Greg M. McFarquhar, Darrel Baumgardner, Aaron Bansemer, Steven J. Abel, Jonathan Crosier, Jeff French, Phil Rosenberg, Alexei Korolev, Alfons Schwarzoenboeck, Delphine Leroy, Junshik Um, Wei Wu, Andrew J. Heymsfield, Cynthia Twohy, Andrew Detwiler, Paul Field, Andrea Neumann, Richard Cotton, Duncan Axisa, and Jiayin Dong

Abstract

In situ observations of cloud properties made by airborne probes play a critical role in ice cloud research through their role in process studies, parameterization development, and evaluation of simulations and remote sensing retrievals. To determine how cloud properties vary with environmental conditions, in situ data collected during different field projects processed by different groups must be used. However, because of the diverse algorithms and codes that are used to process measurements, it can be challenging to compare the results. Therefore it is vital to understand both the limitations of specific probes and uncertainties introduced by processing algorithms. Since there is currently no universally accepted framework regarding how in situ measurements should be processed, there is a need for a general reference that describes the most commonly applied algorithms along with their strengths and weaknesses. Methods used to process data from bulk water probes, single-particle light-scattering spectrometers and cloud-imaging probes are reviewed herein, with emphasis on measurements of the ice phase. Particular attention is paid to how uncertainties, caveats, and assumptions in processing algorithms affect derived products since there is currently no consensus on the optimal way of analyzing data. Recommendations for improving the analysis and interpretation of in situ data include the following: establishment of a common reference library of individual processing algorithms, better documentation of assumptions used in these algorithms, development and maintenance of sustainable community software for processing in situ observations, and more studies that compare different algorithms with the same benchmark datasets.

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Sarah A. Tessendorf, Jeffrey R. French, Katja Friedrich, Bart Geerts, Robert M. Rauber, Roy M. Rasmussen, Lulin Xue, Kyoko Ikeda, Derek R. Blestrud, Melvin L. Kunkel, Shaun Parkinson, Jefferson R. Snider, Joshua Aikins, Spencer Faber, Adam Majewski, Coltin Grasmick, Philip T. Bergmaier, Andrew Janiszeski, Adam Springer, Courtney Weeks, David J. Serke, and Roelof Bruintjes

Abstract

The Seeded and Natural Orographic Wintertime Clouds: The Idaho Experiment (SNOWIE) project aims to study the impacts of cloud seeding on winter orographic clouds. The field campaign took place in Idaho between 7 January and 17 March 2017 and employed a comprehensive suite of instrumentation, including ground-based radars and airborne sensors, to collect in situ and remotely sensed data in and around clouds containing supercooled liquid water before and after seeding with silver iodide aerosol particles. The seeding material was released primarily by an aircraft. It was hypothesized that the dispersal of the seeding material from aircraft would produce zigzag lines of silver iodide as it dispersed downwind. In several cases, unambiguous zigzag lines of reflectivity were detected by radar, and in situ measurements within these lines have been examined to determine the microphysical response of the cloud to seeding. The measurements from SNOWIE aim to address long-standing questions about the efficacy of cloud seeding, starting with documenting the physical chain of events following seeding. The data will also be used to evaluate and improve computer modeling parameterizations, including a new cloud-seeding parameterization designed to further evaluate and quantify the impacts of cloud seeding.

Open access
David C. Leon, Jeffrey R. French, Sonia Lasher-Trapp, Alan M. Blyth, Steven J. Abel, Susan Ballard, Andrew Barrett, Lindsay J. Bennett, Keith Bower, Barbara Brooks, Phil Brown, Cristina Charlton-Perez, Thomas Choularton, Peter Clark, Chris Collier, Jonathan Crosier, Zhiqiang Cui, Seonaid Dey, David Dufton, Chloe Eagle, Michael J. Flynn, Martin Gallagher, Carol Halliwell, Kirsty Hanley, Lee Hawkness-Smith, Yahui Huang, Graeme Kelly, Malcolm Kitchen, Alexei Korolev, Humphrey Lean, Zixia Liu, John Marsham, Daniel Moser, John Nicol, Emily G. Norton, David Plummer, Jeremy Price, Hugo Ricketts, Nigel Roberts, Phil D. Rosenberg, David Simonin, Jonathan W. Taylor, Robert Warren, Paul I. Williams, and Gillian Young

Abstract

The Convective Precipitation Experiment (COPE) was a joint U.K.–U.S. field campaign held during the summer of 2013 in the southwest peninsula of England, designed to study convective clouds that produce heavy rain leading to flash floods. The clouds form along convergence lines that develop regularly as a result of the topography. Major flash floods have occurred in the past, most famously at Boscastle in 2004. It has been suggested that much of the rain was produced by warm rain processes, similar to some flash floods that have occurred in the United States. The overarching goal of COPE is to improve quantitative convective precipitation forecasting by understanding the interactions of the cloud microphysics and dynamics and thereby to improve numerical weather prediction (NWP) model skill for forecasts of flash floods. Two research aircraft, the University of Wyoming King Air and the U.K. BAe 146, obtained detailed in situ and remote sensing measurements in, around, and below storms on several days. A new fast-scanning X-band dual-polarization Doppler radar made 360° volume scans over 10 elevation angles approximately every 5 min and was augmented by two Met Office C-band radars and the Chilbolton S-band radar. Detailed aerosol measurements were made on the aircraft and on the ground. This paper i) provides an overview of the COPE field campaign and the resulting dataset, ii) presents examples of heavy convective rainfall in clouds containing ice and also in relatively shallow clouds through the warm rain process alone, and iii) explains how COPE data will be used to improve high-resolution NWP models for operational use.

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