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Rui Wang, Xin Yan, Zhenguo Niu, and Wei Chen

Abstract

Water surface temperature is a direct indication of climate change. However, it is not clear how China’s inland waters have responded to climate change in the past using a consistent method on a national scale. In this study, we used Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data from 2000 to 2015 to study the temporal and spatial variation characteristics of water surface temperature in China using the wavelet transform method. The results showed the following: 1) the freezing date of China inland water has shown a significant delaying trend during the past 16 years with an average rate of −1.5 days yr−1; 2) the shift of the 0°C isotherm position of surface water across China has clear seasonal changes, which first moved eastward about 25° and northward about 15°, and then gradually moved back after the year 2009; 3) during the past 16 years, the 0°C isotherm of China’s surface water has gradually moved north by about 0.09° in the latitude direction and east by about 1° in the longitude direction; and 4) the interannual variation of water surface temperature in 17 lakes of China showed a similar fluctuation trend that increased before 2010, and then decreased. The El Niño and La Niña around 2010 could have impacts on the turning point of the annual variation of water surface temperature. This study validated the response of China’s inland surface water to global climate change and improved the understanding of the wetland environment’s response to climate change.

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Chuan Jiang Huang, Wei Wang, and Rui Xin Huang

Abstract

The circulation in the equatorial Pacific Ocean is studied in a series of numerical experiments based on an isopycnal coordinate model. The model is subject to monthly mean climatology of wind stress and surface thermohaline forcing. In response to decadal variability in the diapycnal mixing coefficient, sea surface temperature and other properties of the circulation system oscillate periodically. The strongest sea surface temperature anomaly appears in the geographic location of Niño-3 region with the amplitude on the order of 0.5°C, if the model is subject to a 30-yr sinusoidal oscillation in diapycnal mixing coefficient that varies between 0.03 × 10−4 and 0.27 × 10−4 m2 s−1. Changes in diapycnal mixing coefficient of this amplitude are within the bulk range consistent with the external mechanical energy input in the global ocean, especially when considering the great changes of tropical cyclones during the past decades. Thus, time-varying diapycnal mixing associated with changes in wind energy input into the ocean may play a nonnegligible role in decadal climate variability in the equatorial circulation and climate.

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Christopher G. Piecuch, Ichiro Fukumori, Rui M. Ponte, and Ou Wang

Abstract

The nature of ocean bottom pressure () variability is considered on large spatial scales and long temporal scales. Monthly gridded estimates from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) Release-05 and the new version 4 bidecadal ocean state estimate of the Consortium for Estimating the Circulation and Climate of the Ocean (ECCO) are used. Estimates of from GRACE and ECCO are generally in good agreement, providing an independent measure of the quality of both products. Diagnostic fields from the state estimate are used to compute barotropic (depth independent) and baroclinic (depth dependent) components. The relative roles of baroclinic and barotropic processes are found to vary with latitude and time scale: variations in at higher latitudes and shorter periods are affected by barotropic processes, whereas fluctuations at lower latitudes and longer periods can be influenced by baroclinic effects, broadly consistent with theoretical scaling arguments. Wind-driven Rossby waves and coupling of baroclinic and barotropic modes due to flow–topography interactions appear to be important influences on the baroclinic variability. Decadal simulations of monthly variability based on purely barotropic frameworks are expected to be in error by about 30% on average ( in the tropical ocean and at higher latitudes). Results have implications for applying GRACE observations to problems such as estimating transports of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current.

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Lei Wang, Zhi-Jun Yao, Li-Guang Jiang, Rui Wang, Shan-Shan Wu, and Zhao-Fei Liu

Abstract

The spatiotemporal changes in 21 indices of extreme temperature and precipitation for the Mongolian Plateau from 1951 to 2012 were investigated on the basis of daily temperature and precipitation data from 70 meteorological stations. Changes in catastrophic events, such as droughts, floods, and snowstorms, were also investigated for the same period. The correlations between catastrophic events and the extreme indices were examined. The results show that the Mongolian Plateau experienced an asymmetric warming trend. Both the cold extremes and warm extremes showed greater warming at night than in the daytime. The spatial changes in significant trends showed a good homogeneity and consistency in Inner Mongolia. Changes in the precipitation extremes were not as obvious as those in the temperature extremes. The spatial distributions in changes of precipitation extremes were complex. A decreasing trend was shown for total precipitation from west to east as based on the spatial distribution of decadal trends. Drought was the most serious extreme disaster, and prolonged drought for longer than 3 yr occurred about every 7–11 yr. An increasing trend in the disaster area was apparent for flood events from 1951 to 2012. A decreasing trend was observed for the maximum depth of snowfall from 1951 to 2012, with a decreased average maximum depth of 10 mm from the 1990s.

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Xuejin Wang, Baoqing Zhang, Feng Li, Xiang Li, Xuliang Li, Yibo Wang, Rui Shao, Jie Tian, and Chansheng He

Abstract

From 1998 to the present, the Chinese government has implemented numerous large-scale ecological programs to restore ecosystems and improve environmental protection in the agro-pastoral ecotone of northern China (APENC). However, it remains unclear how vegetation restoration modulates intraregional moisture cycles and changes regional water balance. To fill this gap, we first investigated the variation in precipitation (P) from the China Meteorological Forcing Dataset and evapotranspiration (ET) estimated using the Priestley–Taylor Jet Propulsion Laboratory model under two scenarios: dynamic vegetation (DV) and no dynamic vegetation (no-DV). We then used the dynamic recycling model to analyze the changes in precipitation recycling ratio (PRR). Finally, we examined how vegetation restoration modulates intraregional moisture recycling to change the regional water cycle in APENC. Results indicate P increased at an average rate of 4.42 mm yr−2 from 1995 to 2015. ET with DV exhibited a significant increase at a rate of 1.57, 3.58, 1.53, and 1.84 mm yr−2 in the four subregions, respectively, compared with no-DV, and the annual mean PRR values were 10.15%, 9.30%, 11.01%, and 12.76% in the four subregions, and significant increasing trends were found in the APENC during 1995–2015. Further analysis of regional moisture recycling shows that vegetation restoration does not increase local P directly, but has an indirect effect by enhancing moisture recycling process to produce more P by increasing PRR. Our findings show that large-scale ecological restoration programs have a positive effect on local moisture cycle and precipitation.

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Xiaomin Xia, Jianjun Wang, Jiabin Ji, Jiexia Zhang, Liqi Chen, and Rui Zhang

Abstract

Although bacteria are an important biological component of aerosol particles, studies of bacterial communities in remote marine aerosol are largely lacking. In this study, aerosol samples were collected over the western Pacific Ocean, the northern Pacific Ocean, the Arctic Ocean, and the Norwegian Sea during the Fifth Chinese National Arctic Research Expedition (CHINARE 5). The diversity and structure of aerosol bacterial communities, based on 454 pyrosequencing, were explored in these samples. The bacterial community in the aerosols collected over the Pacific Ocean was more diverse than over the Norwegian Sea. Both temporal and spatial variations in aerosol bacterial communities were observed based on phylogenetic analysis. These results suggest that the source of air masses shape bacterial communities in aerosol particles over remote marine regions. Aerosols are clearly important for long-range transport of bacteria. Since potential human pathogens (e.g., Streptococcus sp.) were retrieved in this study, further investigation is needed to evaluate the potential for their long-distance migration via aerosol.

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Lu Yang, Mingxuan Chen, Xiaoli Wang, Linye Song, Meilin Yang, Rui Qin, Conglan Cheng, and Siteng Li

Abstract

The ability to forecast thermodynamic conditions aloft and near the surface is critical to the accurate forecasting of precipitation type at the surface. This paper presents an experimental version of a new scheme for diagnosing precipitation type. The method considers the optimum surface temperature threshold associated with each precipitation type and combines model-based explicit fields of hydrometeors with higher-resolution modified thermodynamic and topographic information to determine precipitation types in North China. Based on over 60 years of precipitation-type samples from North China, this study explores the climatological characteristics of the five precipitation types—snow, rain, ice pellets (IP), rain/snow mix (R/S MIX), and freezing rain (FZ)—as well as the suitable air temperature T a and wet-bulb temperature T w thresholds for distinguishing different precipitation types. Direct output from numerical weather prediction (NWP) models, such as temperature and humidity, was modified by downscaling and bias correction, as well as by incorporating the latest surface observational data and high-resolution topographic data. Validation of the precipitation-type forecasts from this scheme was performed against observations from the 2016 to 2019 winter seasons and two case studies were also analyzed. Compared with the similar diagnostic routine in the High-Resolution Rapid Refresh (HRRR) forecasting system used to predict precipitation type over North China, the skill of the method proposed here is similar for rain and better for snow, R/S MIX, and FZ. Furthermore, depiction of the diagnosed boundary between R/S MIX and snow is good in most areas. However, the number of misclassifications for R/S MIX is significantly larger than for rain and snow.

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Xing Chen, Mukesh Kumar, Rui Wang, Adam Winstral, and Danny Marks

Abstract

Previous studies have shown that gauge-observed daily streamflow peak times (DPTs) during spring snowmelt can exhibit distinct temporal shifts through the season. These shifts have been attributed to three processes: 1) melt flux translation through the snowpack or percolation, 2) surface and subsurface flow of melt from the base of snowpacks to streams, and 3) translation of water flux in the streams to stream gauging stations. The goal of this study is to evaluate and quantify how these processes affect observed DPTs variations at the Reynolds Mountain East (RME) research catchment in southwest Idaho, United States. To accomplish this goal, DPTs were simulated for the RME catchment over a period of 25 water years using a modified snowmelt model, iSnobal, and a hydrology model, the Penn State Integrated Hydrologic Model (PIHM). The influence of each controlling process was then evaluated by simulating the DPT with and without the process under consideration. Both intra- and interseasonal variability in DPTs were evaluated. Results indicate that the magnitude of DPTs is dominantly influenced by subsurface flow, whereas the temporal shifts within a season are primarily controlled by percolation through snow. In addition to the three processes previously identified in the literature, processes governing the snowpack ripening time are identified as additionally influencing DPT variability. Results also indicate that the relative dominance of each control varies through the melt season and between wet and dry years. The results could be used for supporting DPTs prediction efforts and for prioritization of observables for DPT determination.

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Rui Mao, Dao-Yi Gong, Tianbao Zhao, Wenshan Wang, and Jing Yang

Abstract

High relative humidity (HRH) is defined as a relative humidity of at least 80%, which is often associated with the occurrence of cloud layers. Thus, the frequency of HRH and its changes in the troposphere may be related to the occurrence frequency of cloud layers and their changes. In this study, trends in the frequency of HRH (defined as days with relative humidity ≥80%) over China from the surface to the midtroposphere (≥400 hPa) from 1979 to 2012 were analyzed using a homogenized humidity dataset for spring (March–May), summer (June–August), autumn (September–November), and winter (December–February). The results for the ground level indicate decreasing trends at most stations in southeastern China in spring and in northern China in summer. In the lower troposphere (850 and 700 hPa), most stations over China exhibit positive trends in summer, autumn, and winter. For the midtroposphere (500–400 hPa), increasing trends dominate over China in spring, summer, and autumn. Finally, six reanalysis datasets, the NCEP–NCAR, NCEP–DOE, CFSR, ERA-Interim, MERRA, and JRA-55 datasets, were compared with the observed increasing trends in HRH frequency in the low-to-middle troposphere. Similar increasing trends in HRH frequency in the reanalysis datasets and the homogenized humidity data are observed in certain seasons and for certain regions. These results are consistent with the increasing low-to-middle cloud amounts in recent decades.

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Kang Xu, Rui Xin Huang, Weiqiang Wang, Congwen Zhu, and Riyu Lu

Abstract

The interannual fluctuations of the equatorial thermocline are usually associated with El Niño activity, but the linkage between the thermocline modes and El Niño is still under debate. In the present study, a mode function decomposition method is applied to the equatorial Pacific thermocline, and the results show that the first two dominant modes (M1 and M2) identify two distinct characteristics of the equatorial Pacific thermocline. The M1 reflects a basinwide zonally tilted thermocline related to the eastern Pacific (EP) El Niño, with shoaling (deepening) in the western (eastern) equatorial Pacific. The M2 represents the central Pacific (CP) El Niño, characterized by a V-shaped equatorial Pacific thermocline (i.e., deep in the central equatorial Pacific and shallow on both the western and eastern boundaries). Furthermore, both modes are stable and significant on the interannual time scale, and manifest as the major feature of the thermocline fluctuations associated with the two types of El Niño events. As good proxies of EP and CP El Niño events, thermocline-based indices clearly reveal the inherent characteristics of subsurface ocean responses during the evolution of El Niño events, which are characterized by the remarkable zonal eastward propagation of equatorial subsurface ocean temperature anomalies, particularly during the CP El Niño. Further analysis of the mixed layer heat budget suggests that the air–sea interactions determine the establishment and development stages of the CP El Niño, while the thermocline feedback is vital for its further development. These results highlight the key influence of equatorial Pacific thermocline fluctuations in conjunction with the air–sea interactions, on the CP El Niño.

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