Search Results

You are looking at 31 - 40 of 66 items for

  • Author or Editor: David D. Turner x
  • All content x
Clear All Modify Search
Robin L. Tanamachi, Stephen J. Frasier, Joseph Waldinger, Allison LaFleur, David D. Turner, and Francesc Rocadenbosch

Abstract

During spring 2016 and spring 2017, a vertically pointing, S-band Frequency Modulated Continuous Wave radar (UMass FMCW) was deployed in northern Alabama under the auspices of the Verification of the Origins of Rotation in Tornadoes Experiment (VORTEX)-Southeast. In total, ~14 weeks of data were collected, in conditions ranging from quiescent clear skies to severe thunderstorms. The principal objective of these deployments was to characterize the boundary layer evolution near the VORTEX-Southeast domain. In this paper, we describe intermediate results in service of this objective. Specifically, we describe updates to the UMass FMCW system, document its deployments for VORTEX-Southeast, and apply four automated algorithms: 1) a dealiasing algorithm to the Doppler velocities, 2) a fuzzy logic scatterer classification scheme to separate precipitation from nonprecipitation observations, 3) a brightband/melting-layer identification algorithm for stratiform precipitation, and 4) an extended Kalman filter–based convective boundary layer depth (mixing height) measurement algorithm for nonprecipitation observations. Results from the latter two applications are qualitatively verified against retrieved soundings from a collocated thermodynamic profiling system.

Open access
Coltin Grasmick, Bart Geerts, David D. Turner, Zhien Wang, and T. M. Weckwerth

Abstract

The vertical structures of a leading outflow boundary ahead of a continental nocturnal MCS and of the upstream environment are examined in order to answer the question of whether this vertical structure affects new cell formation and thus MCS maintenance. The MCS in question, observed on 15 July 2015 as part of the Plains Elevated Convection at Night (PECAN) experiment, formed near sunset as a surface-based, density current–driven system. As the night progressed and a stable boundary layer developed, convection became elevated, multiple fine lines became apparent (indicative of an undular bore), and convection increasingly lagged the outflow boundary. Bore-like boundaries became most apparent where the outflow boundary was oriented more perpendicular to the low-level jet, and the lower troposphere was more susceptible to wave trapping. This case study uses a rich array of radiosonde data, as well as airborne Raman lidar and ground-based interferometer data, to profile the temperature and humidity in the lower troposphere. In all soundings, the lifting of air in the residual mixed layer over a depth corresponding to the Raman lidar observed vertical displacement reduced CIN to near zero and enabled deep convection, even though most unstable CAPE steadily decreased during the evolution of this MCS. Both types of outflow boundaries (density currents and bores) initiated convection that helped maintain the MCS. In the case of density currents, cold pool depth and wind shear determined new cell formation and thus MCS maintenance. For bore-like boundaries, bore transformation and propagation were additional factors that determined whether convection initiated and whether it contributed to the MCS or remained separated.

Full access
Daniel C. Hartung, Jason A. Otkin, Ralph A. Petersen, David D. Turner, and Wayne F. Feltz

Abstract

In this study, atmospheric analyses obtained through assimilation of temperature, water vapor, and wind profiles from a potential network of ground-based remote sensing boundary layer profiling instruments were used to generate short-range ensemble forecasts for each assimilation experiment performed in Part I. Remote sensing systems evaluated during this study include the Doppler wind lidar (DWL), Raman lidar (RAM), microwave radiometer (MWR), and the Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer (AERI). Overall, the results show that the most accurate forecasts were achieved when mass (temperature and humidity profiles from the RAM, MWR, and/or AERI) and momentum (wind profiles from the DWL) observations were assimilated simultaneously, which is consistent with the main conclusion from Part I. For instance, the improved wind and moisture analyses obtained through assimilation of these observations contributed to more accurate forecasts of moisture flux convergence and the intensity and location of accumulated precipitation (ACPC) due to improved dynamical forcing and mesoscale boundary layer thermodynamic structure. An object-based verification tool was also used to assess the skill of the ACPC forecasts. Overall, total interest values for ACPC matched objects, along with traditional forecast skill statistics like the equitable threat score and critical success index, were most improved in the multisensor assimilation cases.

Full access
Wayne M. Angevine, Joseph Olson, Jake J. Gristey, Ian Glenn, Graham Feingold, and David D. Turner

Abstract

Proper behavior of physics parameterizations in numerical models at grid sizes of order 1 km is a topic of current research. Modifications to parameterization schemes to accommodate varying grid sizes are termed “scale aware.” The general problem of grids on which a physical process is partially resolved is called the “gray zone” or “terra incognita.” Here we examine features of the Mellor–Yamada–Nakanishi–Niino (MYNN) boundary layer scheme with eddy diffusivity and mass flux (EDMF) that were intended to provide scale awareness, as implemented in WRF, version 4.1. Scale awareness is provided by reducing the intensity of nonlocal components of the vertical mixing in the scheme as the grid size decreases. However, we find that the scale-aware features cause poorer performance in our tests on a 600-m grid. The resolved circulations on the 600-m grid have different temporal and spatial scales than are found in large-eddy simulations of the same cases, for reasons that are well understood theoretically and are described in the literature. The circulations [model convectively induced secondary circulations (M-CISCs)] depend on the grid size and on details of the model numerics. We conclude that scale awareness should be based on effective resolution, and not on grid size, and that the gray-zone problem for boundary layer turbulence and shallow cumulus cannot be solved simply by reducing the intensity of the parameterization. Parameterizations with different characteristics may lead to different conclusions.

Restricted access
Julio C. Marín, Diana Pozo, Eli Mlawer, David D. Turner, and Michel Curé

Abstract

The Radiative Heating in Underexplored Bands Campaign (RHUBC-II) project was held from August to October 2009 in the Atacama Desert in Chile at 5320-m altitude. Observations from this experiment and a high-resolution numerical simulation with the Weather Research and Forecasting Model (WRF) were used to understand the structure and evolution of the atmosphere over a region with complex terrain and extremely dry environmental conditions. The mechanisms driving the local circulations during synoptically unperturbed conditions at the field site were studied. The study suggests that the field site is mainly affected by a mountain-scale and a plateau-scale thermally driven circulation. The latter seems to dominate. The advection of warm air by downslope flows from higher heights during nighttime may be the mechanism that counteracts the longwave radiative cooling at the surface, causing a small decrease of near-surface temperature during the night. WRF represents the near-surface and upper atmosphere reasonably well above the RHUBC-II site. Important orographic features are misrepresented in the model terrain, which may cause the observed differences in near-surface winds. The zonal pressure gradient between both sides of the mountain and the static stability of the air mass on the windward side of the terrain control the local circulations over the field site. Consequently, a misrepresentation of these mechanisms in the model may cause differences between the simulated winds and observations.

Full access
Paul M. Markowski, Nathan T. Lis, David D. Turner, Temple R. Lee, and Michael S. Buban

Abstract

Observations of near-surface vertical wind profiles and vertical momentum fluxes obtained from a Doppler lidar and instrumented towers deployed during VORTEX-SE in the spring of 2017 are analyzed. In particular, departures from the predictions of Monin–Obukhov similarity theory (MOST) are documented on thunderstorm days, both in the warm air masses ahead of storms and within the cool outflow of storms, where MOST assumptions (e.g., horizontal homogeneity and a steady state) are least credible. In these regions, it is found that the nondimensional vertical wind shear near the surface commonly exceeds predictions by MOST. The departures from MOST have implications for the specification of the lower boundary condition in numerical simulations of convective storms. Documenting departures from MOST is a necessary first-step toward improving the lower boundary condition and parameterization of near-surface turbulence (“wall models”) in storm simulations.

Free access
Tetsu Sakai, David N. Whiteman, Felicita Russo, David D. Turner, Igor Veselovskii, S. Harvey Melfi, Tomohiro Nagai, and Yuzo Mano

Abstract

This paper describes recent work in the Raman lidar liquid water cloud measurement technique. The range-resolved spectral measurements at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Goddard Space Flight Center indicate that the Raman backscattering spectra measured in and below low clouds agree well with theoretical spectra for vapor and liquid water. The calibration coefficients of the liquid water measurement for the Raman lidar at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Southern Great Plains site of the U.S. Department of Energy were determined by comparison with the liquid water path (LWP) obtained with Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer (AERI) and the liquid water content (LWC) obtained with the millimeter wavelength cloud radar and water vapor radiometer (MMCR–WVR) together. These comparisons were used to estimate the Raman liquid water cross-sectional value. The results indicate a bias consistent with an effective liquid water Raman cross-sectional value that is 28%–46% lower than published, which may be explained by the fact that the difference in the detectors' sensitivity has not been accounted for. The LWP of a thin altostratus cloud showed good qualitative agreement between lidar retrievals and AERI. However, the overall ensemble of comparisons of LWP showed considerable scatter, possibly because of the different fields of view of the instruments, the 350-m distance between the instruments, and the horizontal inhomogeneity of the clouds. The LWC profiles for a thick stratus cloud showed agreement between lidar retrievals and MMCR–WVR between the cloud base and 150 m above that where the optical depth was less than 3. Areas requiring further research in this technique are discussed.

Full access
Kevin R. Haghi, Bart Geerts, Hristo G. Chipilski, Aaron Johnson, Samuel Degelia, David Imy, David B. Parsons, Rebecca D. Adams-Selin, David D. Turner, and Xuguang Wang

Abstract

There has been a recent wave of attention given to atmospheric bores in order to understand how they evolve and initiate and maintain convection during the night. This surge is attributable to data collected during the 2015 Plains Elevated Convection at Night (PECAN) field campaign. A salient aspect of the PECAN project is its focus on using multiple observational platforms to better understand convective outflow boundaries that intrude into the stable boundary layer and induce the development of atmospheric bores. The intent of this article is threefold: 1) to educate the reader on current and future foci of bore research, 2) to present how PECAN observations will facilitate aforementioned research, and 3) to stimulate multidisciplinary collaborative efforts across other closely related fields in an effort to push the limitations of prediction of nocturnal convection.

Open access
Nathaniel B. Miller, Matthew D. Shupe, Christopher J. Cox, Von P. Walden, David D. Turner, and Konrad Steffen

Abstract

The surface energy budget plays a critical role in determining the mass balance of the Greenland Ice Sheet, which in turn has significant implications for global sea levels. Nearly three years of data (January 2011–October 2013) are used to characterize the annual cycle of surface radiative fluxes and cloud radiative forcing (CRF) from the central Greenland Ice Sheet at Summit Station. The annual average CRF is 33 W m−2, representing a substantial net cloud warming of the central Greenland surface. Unlike at other Arctic sites, clouds warm the surface during the summer. The surface albedo is high at Summit throughout the year, limiting the cooling effect of the shortwave CRF and thus the total CRF is dominated by cloud longwave warming effects in all months. All monthly mean CRF values are positive (warming), as are 98.5% of 3-hourly cases. The annual cycle of CRF is largely driven by the occurrence of liquid-bearing clouds, with a minimum in spring and maximum in late summer. Optically thick liquid-bearing clouds [liquid water path (LWP) > 30 g m−2] produce an average longwave CRF of 85 W m−2. Shortwave CRF is sensitive to solar zenith angle and LWP. When the sun is well above the horizon (solar zenith angle < 65°), a maximum cloud surface warming occurs in the presence of optically thin liquid-bearing clouds. Ice clouds occur frequently above Summit and have mean longwave CRF values ranging from 10 to 60 W m−2, dependent on cloud thickness.

Full access
Adrien Lacour, Helene Chepfer, Matthew D. Shupe, Nathaniel B. Miller, Vincent Noel, Jennifer Kay, David D. Turner, and Rodrigo Guzman

Abstract

Spaceborne lidar observations from the Cloud–Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations (CALIPSO) satellite provide the first-ever observations of cloud vertical structure and phase over the entire Greenland Ice Sheet. This study leverages CALIPSO observations over Greenland to pursue two investigations. First, the GCM-Oriented CALIPSO Cloud Product (CALIPSO-GOCCP) observations are compared with collocated ground-based radar and lidar observations at Summit, Greenland. The liquid cloud cover agrees well between the spaceborne and ground-based observations. In contrast, ground–satellite differences reach 30% in total cloud cover and 40% in cloud fraction below 2 km above ground level, due to optically very thin ice clouds (IWC < 2.5 × 10−3 g m−3) missed by CALIPSO-GOCCP. Those results are compared with satellite cloud climatologies from the GEWEX cloud assessment. Most passive sensors detect fewer clouds than CALIPSO-GOCCP and the Summit ground observations, due to different detection methods. Second, the distribution of clouds over the Greenland is analyzed using CALIPSO-GOCCP. Central Greenland is the cloudiest area in summer, at +7% and +4% above the Greenland-wide average for total and liquid cloud cover, respectively. Southern Greenland contains free-tropospheric thin ice clouds in all seasons and liquid clouds in summer. In northern Greenland, fewer ice clouds are detected than in other areas, but the liquid cloud cover seasonal cycle in that region drives the total Greenland cloud annual variability with a maximum in summer. In 2010 and 2012, large ice-sheet melting events have a positive liquid cloud cover anomaly (from +1% to +2%). In contrast, fewer clouds (−7%) are observed during low ice-sheet melt years (e.g., 2009).

Full access