Search Results

You are looking at 41 - 50 of 225 items for

  • Author or Editor: Bin Wang x
  • All content x
Clear All Modify Search
Bin Wang and Qin Zhang

Abstract

The anomalous Philippine Sea anticyclone (PSAC) conveys impacts of El Niño to east Asian climate during the mature and decay of an El Niño (from the winter to ensuing summer). It is shown that the anomalous PSAC forms in fall about one season prior to the peak El Niño; its strength increases with the El Niño intensity and its sign reverses during a La Niña. The PSAC formation concurs with abnormal deepening of the east Asian trough and with increasing number of northward recurvature of tropical storms in the western Pacific. The PSAC establishment is abrupt, coupling with a swing from a wet to dry phase of an intraseasonal oscillation (ISO) and often concurrent with early retreat of the east Asian summer monsoon. The ISO becomes inactive after PSAC establishment.

The development of the PSAC is attributed to combined effects of the remote El Niño forcing, tropical–extratropical interaction, and monsoon–ocean interaction. The developing El Niño induces off-equatorial ascending Rossby wave responses and land surface cooling in northeast Asia; both deepen the east Asian trough in fall and induces vigorous tropical–extratropical exchange of air mass and heat, which enhances the cold air outbreak and initiation of the PSAC. Through exciting descending Rossby waves, the El Niño–induced Indonesian subsidence generates low-level anticyclonic vorticity over south Asia, which is advected by mean monsoon westerly, instigating the anomalous PSAC. The ISO interacting with the underlying ocean plays a critical role in the abrupt establishment of PSAC. The wind–evaporation/entrainment feedback tends to amplify (suppress) ISO before (after) winter northeasterly monsoon commences, suggesting the roles of atmosphereocean interaction and the seasonal march of background winds in changing the Philippine Sea ISO intensity and maintaining PSAC.

Full access
Bin Wang and Tianming Li

Abstract

Tropical boundary-layer flows interact with the free tropospheric circulation and underlying sea surface temperature, playing a critical role in coupling collective effects of cumulus heating with equatorial dynamics. In this paper a unified theoretical framework is developed in which convective interaction with large-scale circulation includes three mechanisms: convection–wave convergence (CWC) feedback, evaporation–wind (EW) feedback, and convection–frictional convergence (CFC) feedback. We examine the dynamic instability resulting from the convective interaction with circulation, in particular the role of CFC feedback mechanism.

CFC feedback results in an unstable mode that has distinctive characteristics from those occurring from CWC feedback or EW feedback in the absence of mean flow. The instability generated by CFC feedback is of low frequency with a typical growth rate on an order of 10−6 s−1. The unstable mode is a multiscale wave packet; a global-scale circulation couples with a large-scale (several thousand kilometers) convective complex. The complex is organized by boundary-layer convergence and may consist of a few synoptic-scale precipitation cells. The heating released in the complex in turn couples the moist Kelvin wave and the Rossby wave with the gravest meridional structure, forming a dispersive system. The energy propagates slower than the individual cells within the wave packet. A transient boundary layer is shown to favor planetary-scale instability due to the fractionally created phase shift between the maximum vertical motion and the heating associated with boundary-layer convergence.

The implications of the theory to the basic dynamics of tropical intraseasonal oscillation are discussed.

Full access
Gary Grunseich and Bin Wang

Abstract

The fluctuation of Arctic sea ice concentration (SIC) has been associated with changes in ocean circulation, ecology, and Northern Hemisphere climate. Prediction of sea ice melting patterns is of great societal interest, but such prediction remains difficult because the factors controlling year-to-year sea ice variability remain unresolved. Distinct monsoon–Arctic teleconnections modulate summer Arctic SIC largely by changing wind-forced sea ice transport. East Asian monsoon rainfall produces a northward-propagating meridional Rossby wave train extending into the Siberian Arctic. The Indian summer monsoon excites an eastward-propagating circumglobal teleconnection along the subtropical jet, reaching the North Atlantic before bifurcating into the Arctic. The remote Asian monsoon variations induce a dominant dipole sea ice melt pattern in which the North Atlantic–European Arctic contrasts with the Siberian–North American Arctic. The monsoon-related sea ice variations are complementary and comparable in magnitude to locally forced Arctic Oscillation variability. The monsoon–Arctic link will improve seasonal prediction of summer Arctic sea ice and possibly explain long-term sea ice trends associated with the projected increase in Asian monsoon rainfall over the next century.

Full access
Kazuyoshi Kikuchi and Bin Wang

Abstract

Meteorological and geophysical phenomena involve multiple-scale processes. Here the spatiotemporal wavelet transform (STWT) is applied to detect significant, nonstationary, wave propagation signals from a time–space domain. One of the major advantages of the STWT is the capability to localize the wave properties in both space and time, which facilitates the study of interactions among multiple-scale disturbances by providing relevant information about energy concentration at a given time and space. The global wavelet spectrum (scalogram) of the STWT, which gives an integrated view of the spectrum as wavenumber and frequency, provides a lucid picture of the spectral power distribution that is consistent with the result obtained from the Fourier-based space–time power spectrum. The STWT has also the capability of reconstruction and thus can be used as a spatiotemporal wave filter.

The STWT analysis is applied to analyze the multiscale structure of the Madden–Julian oscillation (MJO) studied by Nakazawa. All types of convectively coupled equatorial waves were identified. The analysis results reveal the structural differences between the MJO and Kelvin waves and their different relationships with the embedded westward propagating inertio-gravity (WIG) waves: for the Kelvin wave the enhanced activity of the WIG waves coincides with the most active convective area, whereas for the MJO the enhanced WIG waves occur to the east of the MJO convective center. In addition, the WIG waves in the MJO have shorter wavelengths and periods, but those in the Kelvin waves have longer wavelengths and periods. This difference may hold a key to understanding the propagation speed difference between the MJO and Kelvin waves. The possible “upscale feedback” of the WIG waves on the MJO and Kelvin waves is also discussed.

Full access
Bin Wang and Xiaofan Li

Abstract

Tropical cyclone propagation (the beta drift) is driven by a secondary circulation associated with axially asymmetric gyres (beta gyres) in the vicinity of the cyclone center. In the presence of the beta effect, the environmental flow may interact with the symmetric circulation and beta gyres of the cyclone, affecting the development of the gyres and thereby the cyclone propagation. An energetics analysis is carried out to elucidate the development mechanism of the beta gyres and to explain variations in propagation speed of a barotropic cyclone embedded in a meridionally varying zonal flow on a beta plane. Two types of zonal flows are considered: one with a constant meridional shear resembling those in the vicinity of a subtropical ridge or a monsoon trough, and the other with a constant relative vorticity gradient as in the vicinity of an easterly (westerly) jet.

Zonal flow with a constant meridional shear changes the generation rate of the gyre kinetic energy through an exchange of energy directly with the gyres. The momentum flux associated with gyres acting on the meridional shear of zonal flow accounts for this energy conversion process. Zonal flow with an anticyclonic (cyclonic) shear feeds (extracts) kinetic energy to (from) the gyres. The magnitude of this energy conversion is proportional to the strength of the meridional shear and the gyre intensity. As a result, the gyres are stronger and the beta drift is faster near a subtropical ridge (anticyclonic shear) than within a monsoon trough (cyclonic shear).

Zonal flow with a constant relative vorticity gradient affects gyre intensity via two processes that have opposing effects. A southward vorticity gradient, on the one hand, weakens the gyres by reducing the energy conversion rate from symmetric circulation to gyres; on the other hand, it enhances the gyres by indirectly feeding energy to the symmetric circulation, whose strengthening in turn accelerates the energy conversion from symmetric circulation to gyres. The effect of the second process tends to eventually become dominant.

Full access
Xiouhua Fu and Bin Wang

Abstract

This study assesses the impact of stratiform rainfall (i.e., large-scale rainfall) in the development and maintenance of the Madden–Julian oscillation (MJO) in a contemporary general circulation model: ECHAM4 AGCM and its coupled version. To examine how the model MJO would change as the stratiform proportion (the ratio of the stratiform versus total rainfall) varies, a suite of sensitivity experiments has been carried out under a weather forecast setting and with three 20-yr free integrations. In these experiments, the detrainment rates of deep/shallow convections that function as a water supply to stratiform clouds were modified, which results in significant changes of stratiform rainfall.

Both the forecast experiments and long-term free integrations indicate that only when the model produces a significant proportion (≥30%) of stratiform rainfall can a robust MJO be sustained. When the stratiform rainfall proportion becomes small, the tropical rainfall in the model is dominated by drizzle-like regimes with neither eastward-propagating nor northward-propagating MJO being sustained.

It is found that the latent heat release of stratiform rainfall significantly warms up the upper troposphere. The covariability between the heating and positive temperature anomaly produces eddy available potential energy that sustains the MJO against dissipation and also allows the direct interaction between the precipitation heating and large-scale low-frequency circulations, which is critical to the development and maintenance of the MJO. This finding calls for better representations of stratiform rainfall and its connections with the convective component in GCMs in order to improve their simulations of the MJO.

Full access
Tianming Li and Bin Wang

Abstract

Diagnosis of the dynamic and thermodynamic balances using observed climatological monthly mean data reveals that 1) anisotropic, latitude-dependent Rayleigh friction coefficients lead to much improved modeling of the monthly mean surface wind field for a given monthly mean sea level pressure field, and 2) the annual variation of the vertically averaged lapse rate is important for modeling sea level pressure.

Based on the aforementioned observations, a thermodynamic equilibrium climate model for the tropical Pacific is proposed. In this model, the sea level pressure is thermodynamically determined from sea surface temperature (SST) through a vertically integrated hydrostatic equation in which the vertical mean lapse rate is a function of SST plus a time-independent correction. The surface winds are then computed from sea level pressure gradients through a linear surface momentum balance with anisotropic, latitude-dependent Rayleigh friction coefficients. The precipitation is finally obtained from a moisture budget by taking into account the effects of SST on convective instability.

Despite its simplicity, the model is capable of simulating realistic annual cycles as well as interannual variations of the surface wind, sea level pressure, and precipitation over the tropical Pacific. The success of the model suggests that the tropical atmosphere on a monthly mean time scale is, to the lowest-order approximation, in a thermodynamic equilibrium state in which sea level pressure is primarily controlled by SST and the effects of dynamic feedback on sea level pressure may be parameterized by an empirical SST-lapse rate relationship. Further studies are needed to establish a firm physical basis for the proposed parameterization.

Full access
Bin Wang and Xiaosu Xie

Abstract

The mechanism by which a vertically sheared zonal flow affects large-scale, low-frequency equatorial waves is investigated with two-level equatorial,β-plane and spherical coordinates models.

Vertical shears couple barolinic and barotropic components of equatorial wave motion, affecting significantly the Rossby wave and westward propagating Yanai wave but not the Kelvin wave. This difference results from the fact that the barotropic component is a modified Rossby mode and can be resonantly excited only by westward propagating internal waves. The barotropic components emanate poleward into the extratropics with a pronounced amplitude, while the baroclinic components remain equatorially trapped. A westerly vertical shear favors the trapping of Rossby and Yanai waves in the upper troposphere, whereas an easterly shear tends to confine them in the lower troposphere. As such, their westward propagation is slowed down by both westerly and easterly shears. When the strength of the vertical shear varies with latitude, both the vertical modes are locally enhanced in the latitudes of strong shear.

The theory suggests that the vertical shear plays an essential role in emanation of heating-induced internal equatorial Rossby waves into the extratropics with a transformed barotropic structure. It may also be partially responsible for trapping perturbation kinetic energy in the upper-troposphere westerly duct and the lower-troposphere monsoon trough.

Full access
Xiouhua Fu and Bin Wang

Abstract

This paper reveals major deficiencies of the existing intermediate climate models for tropical surface winds and elaborates the important roles of cloud-longwave radiational forcing and boundary layer thermodynamics in driving the tropical surface winds.

The heat sink associated with the cloud-longwave radiation is demonstrated as an important driving force for boreal summer northeast trades and Indian Ocean southwest monsoons. Over the western North Pacific and Atlantic Oceans, low cloudiness and high sea surface temperature enhance longwave radiation cooling, strengthening subtropical high and associated trades. On the other hand, in the regions of heavy rainfall over South Asia, reduced cloud-longwave radiation cooling enhances monsoon trough and associated southwest monsoons. The boundary layer thermodynamic processes, primarily both the surface heat fluxes and the vertical temperature advection, are shown to be critical for a realistic simulation of the intertropical convergence zone, the equatorial surface winds, and associated divergence field.

To successfully simulate the tropical surface winds, it is essential for intermediate models to adequately describe the feedback of the boundary layer frictional convergence to convective heat source, cloud-longwave radiation forcing, boundary layer temperature gradient forcing, and their interactions. The capability and limitations of the intermediate tropical climate model in reproducing both climatology and interannual variations are discussed.

Full access
Fei Liu and Bin Wang

Abstract

The Indian summer monsoon (ISM) and western North Pacific summer monsoon (WNPSM) are two subsystems of the Asian summer monsoon, and they exhibit different global teleconnection patterns. The enhanced ISM strengthens the South Asian high and Mascarene high, and the WNPSM excites a meridional tripolar wave train in the Northern Hemisphere and affects the Australian high in the Southern Hemisphere. To understand the dynamics behind these global teleconnections, especially the processes responsible for the cross-equatorial teleconnection, an intermediate model, describing a two-level troposphere and a steady planetary boundary layer (PBL), is linearized from the background horizontal wind field. The model results indicate that the ISM heating, located under the strong easterly vertical shear (VS) and close to the westerly jet in the Northern Hemisphere, can excite a barotropic Rossby wave that emanates northwestward and then propagates downstream along the westerly jet. Since the WNPSM heating is far away from the westerly jet over the North Pacific, it only excites a weak Rossby wave train, which cannot explain the meridional tripolar teleconnection associated with the WNPSM. It is found that both the ISM and WNPSM heating excite strong teleconnections in the Southern Hemisphere via an advection mechanism; that is, the background upper-level northerly winds can transport energy across the equator from the Northern Hemisphere summer monsoon to the Southern Hemisphere westerly jet. In addition, the PBL enhances monsoon teleconnections by trapping more energy in the upper troposphere. The elevated maximum monsoon heating also reinforces upper-level perturbations and enhances the teleconnection pattern.

Full access