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Malte F. Stuecker, Christina Karamperidou, Alison D. Nugent, Giuseppe Torri, Sloan Coats, and Steven Businger
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Paolo Antonelli, Henry E. Revercomb, Graziano Giuliani, Tiziana Cherubini, Steven Businger, Ryan Lyman, Stephen Tjemkes, Rolf Stuhlmann, and Jean-Luc Moncet

Abstract

The Space Science Engineering Center, in collaboration with the Mauna Kea Weather Center at the University of Hawai’i at Mānoa, has developed a regional retrieval processor for high-spectral-resolution infrared data. The core of the processor makes use of an inversion system, referred to as Mirto, which combines, in a Bayesian way, the a priori knowledge of the atmospheric state, based on available numerical weather prediction forecasts, with the physical information embedded in satellite observations. Forecast temperature and water vapor mixing ratio fields over the central North Pacific Ocean are adjusted to produce synthetic radiances closer and closer to the Suomi NPP Cross-track Infrared Sounder (CrIS) observations taken in clear-sky conditions. The paucity of synoptic observations over this area and the highly homogeneous background represented by the ocean provide a good framework for the implementation of this hyperspectral data inversion system. Nearly real-time (less than 60 min from overpass time) Internet publication of retrieved atmospheric profiles is made possible by the availability of a direct broadcast system that provides data from the Suomi NPP platform (CrIS and VIIRS). The main goal for the implemented system is to provide the forecasting community with products suitable for nowcasting applications and for optimal data assimilation. The implemented processor has been running routinely since August 2013. Validation based on the comparisons of retrievals with rawinsonde data from Hilo, Hawaii, and Lihue, Hawaii, and GPS-derived total precipitable water from four stations, performed over a time period of more than 1 year, shows a statistically significant improvement on the background atmospheric state used as a priori information.

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James J. Gurka, Eugene P. Auciello, Anthony F. Gigi, Jeff S. Waldstreicher, Kermit K. Keeter, Steven Businger, and Laurence G. Lee

Abstract

The complex combination of synoptic and mesoscale interactions, topographic influences, and large population densities poses a multitude of challenging problems to winter weather forecasters throughout the eastern United States. Over the years, much has been learned about the structure, evolution, and attendant precipitation within winter storms. As a result, numerous operational procedures, forecast applications, and objective techniques have been developed at National Weather Service offices to assess the potential for, and forecast, hazardous winter weather. A companion paper by Maglaras et al. provided an overview of the challenge of forecasting winter weather in the eastern United States.

This paper focuses on the problem of cyclogenesis from an operational perspective. Since pattern recognition is an important tool employed by field forecasters, a review of several conceptual models of cyclogenesis often observed in the east is presented. These include classical Miller type A and B cyclogenesis, zipper lows, 500-mb cutoff lows, and cold-air cyclogenesis. The ability of operational dynamical models to predict East Coast cyclones and, in particular, explosive cyclogenesis is explored. An operational checklist that utilizes information from the Nested Grid Model to forecast the potential for rapid cyclogenesis is also described. A review of signatures related to cyclogenesis in visible, infrared, and water vapor satellite imagery is presented. Finally, a study of water vapor imagery for 16 cases of explosive cyclogenesis between 1988 and 1990 indicates that an acceleration of a dry (dark) surge with speeds exceeding 25 m s−1, toward a baroclinic zone, is an excellent indicator of the imminent onset of rapid deepening.

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Steven P. Oncley, Carl A. Friehe, John C. Larue, Joost A. Businger, Eric C. Itsweire, and Sam S. Chang

Abstract

An atmospheric surface-layer experiment over a nearly uniform plowed field was performed to determine the constants in the flux-profile similarity formulas, particularly the von Kármán constant. New instruments were constructed to minimize flow distortion effects on the turbulence measurements and to provide high-resolution gradient measurements. In addition, a hot-wire anemometer directly measured the turbulent kinetic energy dissipation rate.

An average value of the von Kármán constant of 0.365 ± 0.015 was obtained from 91 runs (31 h) in near-neutral stability conditions. However, four near-neutral runs when snow covered the ground gave an average value of 0.42. This result suggests that the von Kármán constant depends on the roughness Reynolds number, which may resolve some of the differences in previous determinations over different surfaces. The one-dimensional Kolmogorov inertial subrange constant was found to have a value of 0.54 ± 0.03, slightly larger than previous results.

The flux-profile relations for momentum and temperature variance were evaluated, and humidity variance data behaved similarly to temperature. Dissipation of turbulent kinetic energy was found to be less than production under near-neutral conditions, which suggests that turbulent or pressure transport may be significant.

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Steven Businger, Steven R. Chiswell, Michael Bevis, Jingping Duan, Richard A. Anthes, Christian Rocken, Randolph H. Ware, Michael Exner, T. VanHove, and Fredrick S. Solheim

This paper provides an overview of applications of the Global Positioning System (GPS) for active measurement of the Earth's atmosphere. Microwave radio signals transmitted by GPS satellites are delayed (refracted) by the atmosphere as they propagate to Earth-based GPS receivers or GPS receivers carried on low Earth orbit satellites.

The delay in GPS signals reaching Earth-based receivers due to the presence of water vapor is nearly proportional to the quantity of water vapor integrated along the signal path. Measurement of atmospheric water vapor by Earth-based GPS receivers was demonstrated during the GPS/STORM field project to be comparable and in some respects superior to measurements by ground-based water vapor radiometers. Increased spatial and temporal resolution of the water vapor distribution provided by the GPS/STORM network proved useful in monitoring the moisture-flux convergence along a dryline and the decrease in integrated water vapor associated with the passage of a midtropospheric cold front, both of which triggered severe weather over the area during the course of the experiment.

Given the rapid growth in regional networks of continuously operating Earth-based GPS receivers currently being implemented, an opportunity exists to observe the distribution of water vapor with increased spatial and temporal coverage, which could prove valuable in a range of operational and research applications in the atmospheric sciences.

The first space-based GPS receiver designed for sensing the Earth's atmosphere was launched in April 1995. Phase measurements of GPS signals as they are occluded by the atmosphere provide refractivity profiles (see the companion article by Ware et al. on page 19 of this issue). Water vapor limits the accuracy of temperature recovery below the tropopause because of uncertainty in the water vapor distribution. The sensitivity of atmospheric refractivity to water vapor pressure, however, means that refractivity profiles can in principle yield information on the atmospheric humidity distribution given independent information on the temperature and pressure distribution from NWP models or independent observational data.

A discussion is provided of some of the research opportunities that exist to capitalize on the complementary nature of the methods of active atmospheric monitoring by GPS and other observation systems for use in weather and climate studies and in numerical weather prediction models.

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Laurence G. Lee, Rodney F. Gonski, Eugene P. Auciello, James R. Poirier, Robert A. Marine, Steven Businger, Kenneth D. Lapenta, Robert W. Kelly, and Thomas A. NizioL

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Jingping Duan, Michael Bevis, Peng Fang, Yehuda Bock, Steven Chiswell, Steven Businger, Christian Rocken, Frederick Solheim, Terasa van Hove, Randolph Ware, Simon McClusky, Thomas A. Herring, and Robert W. King

Abstract

A simple approach to estimating vertically integrated atmospheric water vapor, or precipitable water, from Global Positioning System (GPS) radio signals collected by a regional network of ground-based geodetic GPS receiver is illustrated and validated. Standard space geodetic methods are used to estimate the zenith delay caused by the neutral atmosphere, and surface pressure measurements are used to compute the hydrostatic (or “dry”) component of this delay. The zenith hydrostatic delay is subtracted from the zenith neutral delay to determine the zenith wet delay, which is then transformed into an estimate of precipitable water. By incorporating a few remote global tracking stations (and thus long baselines) into the geodetic analysis of a regional GPS network, it is possible to resolve the absolute (not merely the relative) value of the zenith neutral delay at each station in the augmented network. This approach eliminates any need for external comparisons with water vapor radiometer observations and delivers a pure GPS solution for precipitable water. Since the neutral delay is decomposed into its hydrostatic and wet components after the geodetic inversion, the geodetic analysis is not complicated by the fact that some GPS stations are equipped with barometers and some are not. This approach is taken to reduce observations collected in the field experiment GPS/STORM and recover precipitable water with an rms error of 1.0–1.5 mm.

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