Search Results

You are looking at 61 - 70 of 94 items for

  • Author or Editor: Wen Chen x
  • All content x
Clear All Modify Search
Lin Liu, Jianping Guo, Wen Chen, Renguang Wu, Lin Wang, Hainan Gong, Bo Liu, Dandan Chen, and Jian Li

Abstract

The present study applies the empirical orthogonal function (EOF) method to investigate the interannual covariations of East Asian–Australian land precipitation (EAALP) during boreal winter based on observational and reanalysis datasets. The first mode of EAALP variations is characterized by opposite-sign anomalies between East Asia (EA) and Australia (AUS). The second mode features an anomaly pattern over EA similar to the first mode, but with a southwest–northeast dipole structure over AUS. El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO) is found to be a primary factor in modulating the interannual variations of land precipitation over EA and western AUS. By comparison, the Indian Ocean subtropical dipole mode (IOSD) plays an important role in the formation of precipitation anomalies over northeastern AUS, mainly through a zonal vertical circulation spanning from the southern Indian Ocean (SIO) to northern AUS. In addition, the ENSO-independent cold sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies in the western North Pacific (WNP) impact the formation of the second mode. Using the atmospheric general circulation model ECHAM5, three 40-yr numerical simulation experiments differing in specified SST forcings verify the impacts of the IOSD and WNP SST anomalies. Further composite analyses indicate that the dominant patterns of EAALP variability are largely determined by the out-of-phase and in-phase combinations of ENSO and IOSD. These results suggest that in addition to ENSO, IOSD should be considered as another crucial factor influencing the EAALP variability during the boreal winter, which has large implications for improved prediction of EAALP land precipitation on the interannual time scale.

Full access
Yu-Chieng Liou, Tai-Chi Chen Wang, Wen-Chau Lee, and Ya-Ju Chang

Abstract

The ground-based velocity track display (GBVTD) technique is extended to two Doppler radars to retrieve the structure of a tropical cyclone’s (TC’s) circulation. With this extension, it is found that the asymmetric part of the TC radial wind component can be derived up to its angular wavenumber-1 structure, and the accuracy of the retrieved TC tangential wind component can be further improved. Although two radar systems are used, a comparison with the traditional dual-Doppler synthesis indicates that this extended GBVTD (EGBVTD) approach is able to estimate more of the TC circulation when there are missing data. Previous research along with this study reveals that the existence of strong asymmetric radial flows can degrade the quality of the GBVTD-derived wind fields. When a TC is observed by one radar, it is suggested that the GBVTD method be applied to TCs over a flat surface (e.g., the ocean) where the assumption of relatively smaller asymmetric radial winds than asymmetric tangential winds is more likely to be true. However, when a TC is observed by two radar systems, especially when the topographic effects are expected to be significant, the EGBVTD rather than the traditional dual-Doppler synthesis should be used.

The feasibility of the proposed EGBVTD method is demonstrated by applying it to an idealized TC circulation model as well as a real case study. Finally, the possibility of combining EGBVTD with other observational instruments, such as dropsonde or wind profilers, to recover the asymmetric TC radial flow structures with even higher wavenumbers is discussed.

Full access
Eugene M. Rasmusson, Phillip A. Arkin, Wen-Yuan Chen, and John B. Jalickee

Abstract

Surface temperature variations over the contiguous United States during the period 1931–75 are examined using mean monthly averages for the 344 climate divisions. This data matrix is decomposed into orthogonal components using the method of singular decomposition.

The third empirical orthogonal function, which accounts for nine percent of the nonseasonal variance, exhibits a significant quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO). The phase and amplitude of the QBO implied by this analysis were further studied using an extension of the singular decomposition method which we call Hilbert Singular Decomposition (USD). HSD uses the Hilbert Transformer to augment the data matrix and transform the real elements into complex elements so that coherent “wavelike” variations can be represented in terms of a complex singular decomposition. Additional cross-spectral analyses were performed for selected climate division aggregates.

Two areas of maximum QBO amplitude are indicated; one over the northeastern United States, and a less distinct area over the southwestern United States. Variations in the two areas appear to be almost 180° out of phase.

Full access
Tianjiao Ma, Wen Chen, Hans-F. Graf, Shuoyi Ding, Peiqiang Xu, Lei Song, and Xiaoqing Lan

Abstract

The present study investigates different impacts of the East Asian winter monsoon (EAWM) on surface air temperature (Ts) in North America (NA) during ENSO and neutral ENSO episodes. In neutral ENSO years, the EAWM shows a direct impact on the Ts anomalies in NA on an interannual time scale. Two Rossby wave packets appear over the Eurasian–western Pacific (upstream) and North Pacific–NA (downstream) regions associated with a strong EAWM. Further analysis suggests that the downstream wave packet is caused by reflection of the upstream wave packet over the subtropical western Pacific and amplified over the North Pacific. Also, the East Asian subtropical westerly jet stream (EAJS) is intensified in the central and downstream region over the central North Pacific. Hence, increased barotropic kinetic energy conversion and the interaction between transient eddies and the EAJS tend to maintain the circulation anomaly over the North Pacific. Therefore, a strong EAWM tends to result in warm Ts anomalies in northwestern NA via the downstream wave packet emanating from the central North Pacific toward NA. A weak EAWM tends to induce cold Ts anomalies in western-central NA with a smaller magnitude. However, in ENSO years, an anomalous EAJS is mainly confined over East Asia and does not extend into the central North Pacific. The results confirm that the EAWM has an indirect impact on the Ts anomalies in NA via a modulation of the tropical convection anomalies associated with ENSO. Our results indicate that, for seasonal prediction of Ts anomalies in NA, the influence of the EAWM should be taken into account. It produces different responses in neutral ENSO and in ENSO years.

Restricted access
Ping Zhao, Song Yang, Renguang Wu, Zhiping Wen, Junming Chen, and Huijun Wang

Abstract

The authors have identified an interannual relationship between Asian tropospheric temperature and the North Atlantic Ocean sea surface temperature (SST) during summer (May–September) and discussed the associated features of atmospheric circulation over the Atlantic–Eurasian region. When tropospheric temperature is high (low) over Asia, positive (negative) SST anomalies appear in the extratropical North Atlantic. This relationship is well supported by the changes in background atmospheric circulation and ocean–atmosphere–land thermodynamic processes. When heat transfer from the land surface to the atmosphere over Asia strengthens, local tropospheric temperature increases and positive temperature anomalies propagate westward from Asia to the North Atlantic, leading to an increase in summer tropospheric temperature over the Atlantic–Eurasian region. Accordingly, a deep anomalous ridge occurs over the extratropical North Atlantic Ocean, with low-level southerly anomalies over the western portion of the ocean. Sensitivity experiments with climate models show that the interannual variations of the North Atlantic–Eurasian atmospheric circulation may not be forced by the extratropical Atlantic SST. Instead, experiments with changing Asian land surface heating capture the above observed features of atmospheric circulation anomalies, westward propagation of tropospheric anomalies, and Atlantic SST anomalies. The consistency between the observational and model results indicates a possible impact of Asian land heating on the development of atmospheric circulation and SST anomalies over the Atlantic–Eurasian region.

Full access
Anne Ru Cheng, Tim Hau Lee, Hsin I. Ku, and Yi Wen Chen

Abstract

This paper introduces a quality control (QC) program for the real-time hourly land surface temperature observation developed by the Central Weather Bureau in Taiwan. There are three strategies involved. The first strategy is a range check scheme that inspects whether the observation falls inside the climatological limits of the station to screen out the obvious outliers. Limits are adjusted according to the station’s elevation. The second strategy is a spatial check scheme that scrutinizes whether the observation falls inside the derived confidence interval, according to the data from the reference stations and the correlations among the stations, to judge the reliability of the data. The scheme is specialized, as it employs the theorems of unbiased and minimum error estimators to determine the weights. The performance evaluation results show that the new method is in theory superior to the spatial regression test (You et al.). The third strategy is a temporal check scheme that examines whether the temperature difference of two successive observations exceeds the temperature variation threshold for judging the rationality of the data. Different thresholds are applied for the data observed in different times under different rainfall conditions. Procedurally, the observation must pass the range check first and then go through the spatial or the temporal check. The temporal check is applied only when the spatial check is unavailable. Post-examinations of the data from 2014 show that the QC program is able to filter out most of the significant errors.

Full access
Zesheng Chen, Yan Du, Zhiping Wen, Renguang Wu, and Shang-Ping Xie

Abstract

The south tropical Indian Ocean (TIO) warms following a strong El Niño, affecting Indo-Pacific climate in early boreal summer. While much attention has been given to the southwest TIO where the mean thermocline is shallow, this study focuses on the subsequent warming in the southeast TIO, where the mean sea surface temperature (SST) is high and deep convection is strong in early summer. The southeast TIO warming induces an anomalous meridional circulation with descending (ascending) motion over the northeast (southeast) TIO. It further anchors a “C-shaped” surface wind anomaly pattern with easterlies (westerlies) in the northeast (southeast) TIO, causing a persistent northeast TIO warming via wind–evaporation–SST feedback. The southeast TIO warming lags the southwest TIO warming by about one season. Ocean wave dynamics play a key role in linking the southwest and southeast TIO warming. South of the equator, the El Niño–forced oceanic Rossby waves, which contribute to the southwest TIO warming, are reflected as eastward-propagating oceanic Kelvin waves along the equator on the western boundary. The Kelvin waves subsequently depress the thermocline and develop the southeast TIO warming.

Full access
A. Kumar, M. Chen, L. Zhang, W. Wang, Y. Xue, C. Wen, L. Marx, and B. Huang

Abstract

For long-range predictions (e.g., seasonal), it is a common practice for retrospective forecasts (also referred to as the hindcasts) to accompany real-time predictions. The necessity for the hindcasts stems from the fact that real-time predictions need to be calibrated in an attempt to remove the influence of model biases on the predicted anomalies. A fundamental assumption behind forecast calibration is the long-term stationarity of forecast bias that is derived based on hindcasts.

Hindcasts require specification of initial conditions for various components of the prediction system (e.g., ocean, atmosphere) that are generally taken from a long reanalysis. Trends and discontinuities in the reanalysis that are either real or spurious can arise due to several reasons, for example, the changing observing system. If changes in initial conditions were to persist during the forecast, there is a potential for forecast bias to depend over the period it is computed, making calibration even more of a challenging task. In this study such a case is discussed for the recently implemented seasonal prediction system at the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP), the Climate Forecast System version 2 (CFS.v2).

Based on the analysis of the CFS.v2 for 1981–2009, it is demonstrated that the characteristics of the forecast bias for sea surface temperature (SST) in the equatorial Pacific had a dramatic change around 1999. Furthermore, change in the SST forecast bias, and its relationship to changes in the ocean reanalysis from which the ocean initial conditions for hindcasts are taken is described. Implications for seasonal and other long-range predictions are discussed.

Full access
Lingzhi Zhong, Rongfang Yang, Lin Chen, Yixin Wen, Ruiyi Li, Guoqiang Tang, and Yang Hong

Abstract

This study presents a statistical analysis of the variability of the vertical structure of precipitation in the eastern downstream region of the Tibetan Plateau as measured by the Precipitation Radar (PR) on the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) satellite. Data were analyzed over an 11-yr time span (January 2004–December 2014). The results show the seasonal and spatial variability of the storm height, freezing level, and bright band for different types of precipitation as well as the characteristics of intensity-related and type-related vertical profiles of reflectivity (VPR). Major findings were as follows: About 90% of the brightband peak reflectivity of stratiform precipitation was less than 32 dBZ, and 40% of the maximum reflectivity of convective precipitation exceeded 35 dBZ. The intensity of surface rainfall rates also depended on the shapes of VPRs. For stratiform precipitation, ice–snow aggregation was faster during moderate and heavy rainfall than it was in light rainfall. Since both the moisture and temperature are lower in winter, the transformation efficiency of hydrometeors becomes slower. Typical Ku-band representative climatological VPRs (CPRs) for stratiform precipitation have been created on the basis of the integration of normalized VPR shape for the given area and the rainfall intensity. All of the findings indicate that the developed CPRs can be used to improve surface precipitation estimates in regions with complex terrain where the ground-based radar net has limited visibility at low levels.

Full access
Xiaomin Chen, Kun Zhao, Wen-Chau Lee, Ben Jong-Dao Jou, Ming Xue, and Paul R. Harasti

Abstract

The ground-based velocity track display (GBVTD) was developed to deduce a three-dimensional primary circulation of landfalling tropical cyclones from single-Doppler radar data. However, the cross-beam component of the mean wind cannot be resolved and is consequently aliased into the retrieved axisymmetric tangential wind . Recently, the development of the hurricane volume velocity processing method (HVVP) enabled the independent estimation of ; however, HVVP is potentially limited by the unknown accuracy of empirical assumptions used to deduce the modified Rankine-combined vortex exponent . By combing the GBVTD with HVVP techniques, this study proposes a modified GBVTD method (MGBVTD) to objectively deduce from the GBVTD technique and provide a more accurate estimation of and via an iterative procedure to reach converged and cross-beam component of solutions. MGBVTD retains the strength of both algorithms but avoids their weaknesses. The results from idealized experiments demonstrate that the MGBVTD-retrieved cross-beam component of is within 2 m s−1 of reality. MGBVTD was applied to Hurricane Bret (1999) whose inner core was captured simultaneously by two Weather Surveillance Radar-1988 Doppler (WSR-88D) instruments. The MGBVTD-retrieved cross-beam component of from single-Doppler radar data is very close to that from dual-Doppler radar synthesis using extended GBVTD (EGBVTD); their difference is less than 2 m s−1. The mean difference in the MGBVTD-retrieved from the two radars is ~2 m s−1, which is significantly smaller than that resolved in GBVTD retrievals (~5 m s−1).

Full access