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Qingjing Hu, Peiran Yu, Yujiao Zhu, Kai Li, Huiwang Gao, and Xiaohong Yao

Abstract

In this paper, the concentration, the size distribution, and the formation of dimethylaminium (DMA+) and trimethylaminium (TMA+) ions in atmospheric particles were studied during a cruise campaign over the Yellow Sea and the Bohai Sea of China in May 2012. The concentrations of DMA+ and TMA+ in particles smaller than 11 µm were 4.4 ± 3.7 and 7.2 ± 7.1 nmol m−3, respectively. The two ions had a good correlation (R 2 = 0.86), and both had a moderately good correlation with chlorophyll a fluorescence (R 2 = 0.66–0.67). The observed concentrations were from one to three orders of magnitude larger than the concentrations reported in other marine atmospheres. They were also much larger than the values observed at a coastal site neighboring the Yellow Sea in May–June 2013. The high concentrations of DMA+ and TMA+ observed in the marine atmosphere were probably associated with local biogenic activity instead of the long-range transport of these species from adjacent continents. The calculated mole ratios of (DMA+ + TMA+) to in different-sized particles over the seas indicated that (DMA+ + TMA+) most likely played an important role in neutralizing acidic species in particles less than 0.43 µm but not in particles of other sizes. Size distributions of DMA+ and TMA+ in the marine and coastal atmospheres were analyzed in terms of the respective contribution of gas–particle partitioning, cloud/fog processing of TMA+ and DMA+, bioaerosols, and sea-salt aerosols to the observed concentrations of the two ions over the seas.

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Liguo Su, Richard L. Collins, David A. Krueger, and Chiao-Yao She

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A statistical study is presented of the errors in sodium Doppler lidar measurements of wind and temperature in the mesosphere that arise from the statistics of the photon-counting process that is inherent in the technique. The authors use data from the Colorado State University (CSU) sodium Doppler wind-temperature lidar, acquired at a midlatitude site, to define the statistics of the lidar measurements in different seasons under both daytime and nighttime conditions. The CSU lidar measurements are scaled, based on a 35-cm-diameter receiver telescope, to the use of large-aperture telescopes (i.e., 1-, 1.8-, and 3.5-m diameters). The expected biases in vertical heat flux measurements at a resolution of 480 m and 150 s are determined and compared to Gardner and Yang’s reported geophysical values of 2.3 K m s−1. A cross-correlation coefficient of 2%–7% between the lidar wind and temperature estimates is found. It is also found that the biases vary from −4 × 10−3 K m s−1 for wintertime measurements at night with a 3.5-m telescope to −61 K m s−1 for summertime measurements at midday with a 1-m telescope. During winter, at night, the three telescope systems yield biases in their heat flux measurements that are less than 10% of the reported value of the heat flux; and during summer, at night, the 1.8- and 3.5-m systems yield biases in their heat flux measurements that are less than 10% of the geophysical value. While during winter at midday the 3.5-m system yields biases in their heat flux measurements that are less than 10% of the geophysical value, during summer at midday all of the systems yield flux biases that are greater than the geophysical value of the heat flux. The results are discussed in terms of current lidar measurements and proposed measurements at high-latitude sites.

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Anthony D. Del Genio, Yonghua Chen, Daehyun Kim, and Mao-Sung Yao

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The relationship between convective penetration depth and tropospheric humidity is central to recent theories of the Madden–Julian oscillation (MJO). It has been suggested that general circulation models (GCMs) poorly simulate the MJO because they fail to gradually moisten the troposphere by shallow convection and simulate a slow transition to deep convection. CloudSat and Cloud–Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations (CALIPSO) data are analyzed to document the variability of convection depth and its relation to water vapor during the MJO transition from shallow to deep convection and to constrain GCM cumulus parameterizations. Composites of cloud occurrence for 10 MJO events show the following anticipated MJO cloud structure: shallow and congestus clouds in advance of the peak, deep clouds near the peak, and upper-level anvils after the peak. Cirrus clouds are also frequent in advance of the peak. The Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer for Earth Observing System (EOS) (AMSR-E) column water vapor (CWV) increases by ~5 mm during the shallow–deep transition phase, consistent with the idea of moisture preconditioning. Echo-top height of clouds rooted in the boundary layer increases sharply with CWV, with large variability in depth when CWV is between ~46 and 68 mm. International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project cloud classifications reproduce these climatological relationships but correctly identify congestus-dominated scenes only about half the time. A version of the Goddard Institute for Space Studies Model E2 (GISS-E2) GCM with strengthened entrainment and rain evaporation that produces MJO-like variability also reproduces the shallow–deep convection transition, including the large variability of cloud-top height at intermediate CWV values. The variability is due to small grid-scale relative humidity and lapse rate anomalies for similar values of CWV.

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Anthony D. Del Genio, Mao-Sung Yao, William Kovari, and Kenneth K-W. Lo

Abstract

An efficient new prognostic cloud water parameterization designed for use in global climate models is described. The scheme allows for life cycle effects in stratiform clouds and permits cloud optical properties to be determined interactively. The parameterization contains representations of all important microphysical processes, including autoconversion, accretion, Bergeron–Findeisen diffusional growth, and cloud/rain water evaporation. Small-scale dynamical processes, including detrainment of convective condensate, cloud-top entrainment instability, and stability-dependent cloud physical thickness variations, are also taken into account. Cloud optical thickness is calculated from the predicted liquid/ice water path and a variable droplet effective radius estimated by assuming constant droplet number concentration. Microphysical and radiative properties are assumed to be different for liquid and ice clouds, and for liquid clouds over land and ocean.

The parameterization is validated in several simulations using the Goddard Institute for Space Studies (GISS) general circulation model (GCM). Comparisons are made with a variety of datasets, including ERBE radiative fluxes and cloud forcing, ISCCP and surface-observed cloud properties, SSM/I liquid water path, and SAGE II thin cirrus cover. Validation is judged on the basis of the model's depiction of both the mean state; diurnal, seasonal, and interannual variability; and the temperature dependence of cloud properties. Relative to the diagnostic cloud scheme used in the previous GISS GCM, the prognostic parameterization strengthens the model's hydrologic cycle and general circulation, both directly and indirectly (via increased cumulus heating). Sea surface temperature (SST) perturbation experiments produce low climate sensitivity and slightly negative cloud feedback for globally uniform SST changes, but high sensitivity and positive cloud feedback when tropical Pacific SST gradients weaken with warming. Changes in the extent and optical thickness of tropical cumulus anvils appear to be the primary factor determining the sensitivity. This suggests that correct simulations of upward transport of convective condensate and of Walker circulation changes are of the highest priority for a realistic estimate of cloud feedback in actual greenhouse gas increase scenarios.

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Wei-Chyung Wang, William B. Rossow, Mao-Sung Yao, and Marilyn Wolfson

Abstract

We illustrate the potential complexity of the feedback between global mean cloud amount and global mean surface temperature when variations of the vertical cloud distribution are included by studying the behavior of a one-dimensional radiative–convective model with two types of cloud variation: 1) variable cloud cover with constant optical thickness and 2) variable optical thickness with constant cloud cover. The variable parameter is calculated assuming a correlation between cloud amount and precipitation or the vertical flux convergence of latent heat. Since the vertical latent heat flux is taken to be a fraction of the total heat flux, modeled by convective adjustment, we examine the sensitivity of the results to two different critical lapse rates, a constant 6.5 K km−1 lapse rate and a temperature-dependent, moist adiabatic lapse rate. The effects of the vertical structure of climate perturbations on the nature of the cloud feedback are examined using two cases: a 2% increase in the solar constant and a doubling of the atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration. The model results show that changes in the vertical cloud distribution and mean cloud optical thickness can be as important to climate variations as are changes in the total cloud cover. Further the variety and complexity of the feedbacks exhibited even by this simple model suggest that proper determination of cloud feedbacks must include the effects of varying vertical distribution.

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Chuan-Yao Lin, Wan-Chin Chen, Pao-Liang Chang, and Yang-Fan Sheng

Abstract

To evaluate the impacts of the urban heat island (UHI) effect on precipitation over a complex geographic environment in northern Taiwan, the next-generation mesoscale model, the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model, coupled with the Noah land surface model and urban canopy model (UCM), was used to study this issue. Based on a better land use classification derived from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) satellite data (the MODIS case), it has significantly improved simulation results for the accumulation rainfall pattern as compared with the original U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) 25-category land use classification (the USGS case). The precipitation system was found to develop later but stronger in the urban (MODIS) case than in the nonurban (USGS) case. In comparison with the observation by radar, simulation results predicted reasonably well; not only was the rainfall system enhanced downwind of the city over the mountainous area, but it also occurred at the upwind plain area in the MODIS case. The simulation results suggested that the correct land use classification is crucial for urban heat island modeling study. The UHI effect plays an important role in perturbing thermal and dynamic processes; it affects the location of thunderstorms and precipitation over the complex geographic environment in northern Taiwan.

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Dan-Qing Huang, Jian Zhu, Yao-Cun Zhang, Jun Wang, and Xue-Yuan Kuang

Abstract

Spring persistent rainfall (SPR) over southern China has great impact on its society and economics. A remarkable feature of the SPR is high frequency. However, SPR frequency obviously decreases over the period of 1997–2011. In this study, the possible causes have been investigated from the perspective of the individual and concurrent effects of the East Asian subtropical jet (EASJ) and East Asian polar front jet (EAPJ). A close relationship is detected between SPR frequency and EASJ intensity (but not EAPJ intensity). Associated with strong EASJ, abundant water vapor is transported to southern China by the southwesterly flow, which may trigger the SPR. Additionally, frequencies of both strong EASJ and weak EAPJ events are positively correlated with SPR frequency. Further investigation of the concurrent effect indicates a significant positive correlation between the frequencies of SPR and the strong EASJ–weak EAPJ configuration. Associated with this configuration, southwesterly flow strengthens in the lower troposphere, while northerly wind weakens in the upper troposphere. This provides a dynamic and moist condition, as enhanced ascending motion and intensified convergence of abundant water vapor over southern China, which favors the SPR. All analyses suggest that the EASJ may play a dominant role in the SPR occurrence and that the EAPJ may play a modulation role. Finally, a possible mechanism maintaining the strong EASJ–weak EAPJ configuration is proposed. Significant cooling over the northeastern Tibetan Plateau may induce a cyclone anomaly in the upper troposphere, which could result in an accelerating EASJ and a decelerating EAPJ.

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Penglei Fan, Dong Zheng, Yijun Zhang, Shanqiang Gu, Wenjuan Zhang, Wen Yao, Biwu Yan, and Yongbin Xu

Abstract

A systematic evaluation of the performance of the World Wide Lightning Location Network (WWLLN) over the Tibetan Plateau is conducted using data from the Cloud-to-Ground Lightning Location System (CGLLS) developed by the State Grid Corporation of China for 2013–15 and lightning data from the satellite-based Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS) for 2014–15. The average spatial location separation magnitudes in the midsouthern Tibetan Plateau (MSTP) region between matched WWLLN and CGLLS strokes and over the whole Tibetan Plateau between matched WWLLN and LIS flashes were 9.97 and 10.93 km, respectively. The detection efficiency (DE) of the WWLLN rose markedly with increasing stroke peak current, and the mean stroke peak currents of positive and negative cloud-to-ground (CG) lightning detected by the WWLLN in the MSTP region were 62.43 and −56.74 kA, respectively. The duration, area, and radiance of the LIS flashes that were also detected by the WWLLN were 1.27, 2.65, and 4.38 times those not detected by the WWLLN. The DE of the WWLLN in the MSTP region was 9.37% for CG lightning and 2.58% for total lightning. Over the Tibetan Plateau, the DE of the WWLLN for total lightning was 2.03%. In the MSTP region, the CG flash data made up 71.98% of all WWLLN flash data. Based on the abovementioned results, the ratio of intracloud (IC) lightning to CG lightning in the MSTP region was estimated to be 4.05.

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Jun Yang, Weitao Lyu, Ying Ma, Yijun Zhang, Qingyong Li, Wen Yao, and Tianshu Lu

Abstract

The macroscopic characteristics of clouds in the Tibetan Plateau are crucial to understanding the local climatic conditions and their impact on the global climate and water vapor cycle. In this study, the variations of cloud cover and cloud types are analyzed by using total-sky images of two consecutive years in Shigatse, Tibetan Plateau. The results show that the cloud cover in Shigatse presents a distinct seasonal difference that is characterized by low cloud cover in autumn and winter and high cloud cover in summer and spring. July is the month with the largest cloud coverage, and its average cloud cover exceeds 75%. The probability of clouds in the sky is the lowest in November, with an average cloud cover of less than 20%. The diurnal variations of cloud cover in different months also have considerable differences. Specifically, cloud cover is higher in the afternoon than that in the morning in most months, whereas the cloud cover throughout the day varies little from July to September. The dominant cloud types in different months are also not the same. The proportion of clear sky is large in autumn and winter. Stratiform cloud occupies the highest percentage in March, April, July, and August. The probability of emergence of cirrus is highest in May and June. The Shigatse region has clear rainy and dry seasons, and correlation analysis between precipitation and clouds shows that the largest cumulative precipitation, the highest cloud cover, and the highest proportion of stratiform clouds occur simultaneously in July.

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Junchen Yao, Tianjun Zhou, Zhun Guo, Xiaolong Chen, Liwei Zou, and Yong Sun

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Simulating the East Asian summer monsoon (EASM) rain belt has been proven challenging for climate models. In this study, the impacts of high resolution to the simulation of spatial distributions and rainfall intensity of the EASM rain belt are revealed based on Atmospheric Model Intercomparison Project (AMIP) simulations from phase 5 of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5) models. A set of sensitivity experiments is further performed to eliminate the potential influences of differences among CMIP5 models. The results show that the high-resolution models improve the intensity and the spatial pattern of the EASM rainfall compared to the low-resolution models, further valid in the sensitivity experiments. The diagnosis of moist static energy (MSE) balance and moisture budgets is further performed to understand the mechanisms underlying the enhancements. Both analyses indicate that the improved EASM rainfall benefits from the intensified meridional convergence along the EASM rain belt simulated by the high-resolution models. In addition, such convergence is mainly contributed by intensified stationary meridional eddy northerly flows over the central northern areas of China and southerly flows over the south of Japan due to increased model resolution, which is robust in the sensitivity experiments. Further analysis indicates that the stationary meridional eddy flow changes in high-resolution simulations are related to the barotropic Rossby wave downstream of the Tibetan Plateau resulting from increased resolution.

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