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Kyle R. Wodzicki and Anita D. Rapp


Many recent studies have aimed to better understand changes in the characteristics of the intertropical convergence zone (ITCZ), including ITCZ location, width, and precipitation intensity. However, very few studies have looked at the relationship between characteristics of convection within the ITCZ and ITCZ width. The present work uses information from an ITCZ identification database and Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) precipitation feature (PF) database to quantify variations in convective characteristics across the ITCZ in the Pacific Ocean. Data are partitioned into wide and narrow ITCZ regimes to quantify differences in convection between different ITCZ regimes. Under the wide regime, convection deeper than 5 km, with areas greater than 100 km2, or stratiform rain fractions greater than 0.5 is, on average, 24%, 23%, and 12% more frequent, respectively. In the narrow regime, the signal is reversed, with average increases in the frequency of convection with heights below 5 km, areas less than 100 km2, or stratiform rain fractions less than 0.5 of 15%, 4%, and 6%, respectively. Positive and negative anomalies in columnar water vapor (CWV) and sea surface temperature (SST) across the ITCZ are observed in the wide and narrow regimes, respectively. There is also a strong positive correlation between an El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO) index and ITCZ width anomalies, with wide (narrow) ITCZs occurring during warm (cold) phases of ENSO. This implies that the strengthening and weakening of the Walker circulation associated with ENSO may play a role in modulating the convective populations that contribute to the Pacific ITCZ width variations.

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Anita D. Rapp, Christian Kummerow, Wesley Berg, and Brian Griffith


Significant controversy surrounds the adaptive infrared iris hypothesis put forth by Lindzen et al., whereby tropical anvil cirrus detrainment is hypothesized to decrease with increasing sea surface temperature (SST). This dependence would act as an iris, allowing more infrared radiation to escape into space and inhibiting changes in the surface temperature. This hypothesis assumes that increased precipitation efficiency in regions of higher sea surface temperatures will reduce cirrus detrainment. Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) satellite measurements are used here to investigate the adaptive infrared iris hypothesis. Pixel-level Visible and Infrared Scanner (VIRS) 10.8-μm brightness temperature data and precipitation radar (PR) rain-rate data from TRMM are collocated and matched to determine individual convective cloud boundaries. Each cloudy pixel is then matched to the underlying SST. This study examines single- and multicore convective clouds separately to directly determine if a relationship exists between the size of convective clouds, their precipitation, and the underlying SSTs. In doing so, this study addresses some of the criticisms of the Lindzen et al. study by eliminating their more controversial method of relating bulk changes of cloud amount and SST across a large domain in the Tropics. The current analysis does not show any significant SST dependence of the ratio of cloud area to surface rainfall for deep convection in the tropical western and central Pacific. Results do, however, suggest that SST plays an important role in the ratio of cloud area and surface rainfall for warm rain processes. For clouds with brightness temperatures between 270 and 280 K, a net decrease in cloud area normalized by rainfall of 5% per degree SST was found.

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