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  • Author or Editor: Atsushi Kudo x
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Atsushi Kudo


In the author’s experience as a forecaster, commercial aircraft sometimes report turbulence beneath midlevel clouds that extend above upper frontal zones. Turbulence caused by Kelvin–Helmholtz instability occurs in upper frontal zones with strong vertical shear of horizontal winds. However, the turbulence seems to occur not only in the cloud bases (where upper frontal zones are) but also below the cloud bases where the vertical shear is not strong. Because those clouds are usually accompanied by precipitation that does not reach the ground, cooling by evaporation or sublimation seems to contribute to the generation of turbulence. In this paper, the mechanisms generating turbulence below midlevel cloud bases are examined by using observations and high-resolution three-dimensional numerical simulations with idealized initial conditions. The numerical simulations showed that the following sequence of events led to turbulence. Falling snow sublimated below cloud bases and cooled the air, which created absolute instability. This generated Rayleigh–Bénard convection cells. The vertical motion caused turbulence. The horizontal scale of the convection was about 800–1000 m, and the variations of vertical wind velocity were up to about 7 m s−1. The cloud base was accompanied by a virga-like distribution of snow. Sensitivity experiments showed the appropriate conditions to cause the turbulence: 1) the cloud-base temperature was between about 0° and −15°C, 2) the relative humidity in subcloud layers was sufficiently low, and 3) the stability in subcloud layers was weak. The results of the numerical simulations agreed well with the observations.

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Atsushi Kudo, Hubert Luce, Hiroyuki Hashiguchi, and Richard Wilson


Deep turbulent layers can sometimes be observed on the underside of clouds that extend above upper-level frontal zones. In a recent study based on 3D numerical simulations with idealized initial conditions, it was found that midlevel cloud-base turbulence (MCT) can result from Rayleigh–Bénard-like convection as a result of cooling by sublimation of precipitating snow into dry and weakly stratified subcloud layers. In the present study, numerically simulated MCT was compared with a turbulent layer detected by the very high-frequency (VHF) middle- and upper-atmosphere (MU) radar during the passage of an upper-level front topped by clouds. The simulations were initialized with thermodynamic parameters derived from simultaneous radiosonde data. It was found that some important features of the simulated MCT (such as the scale of convection and vertical wind velocity perturbations) agreed quantitatively well with those reported in radar observations. Even if the possibility of other generation mechanisms cannot be ruled out, the good agreement strongly suggests that the MU radar actually detected MCT.

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