Search Results

You are looking at 1 - 9 of 9 items for :

  • Author or Editor: Benkui Tan x
  • Journal of Climate x
  • All content x
Clear All Modify Search
Anran Zhuge and Benkui Tan

Abstract

Based on daily data from the Japanese 55-year Reanalysis (JRA-55) covering the springs from 1958 to 2018, this study examines the formation mechanisms and climate impacts of springtime western Pacific (WP) pattern as subseasonal climate variability over North Pacific. Results suggest that the springtime WP pattern arises from a weak dipole-like disturbance over North Pacific and disturbances over East Asia. The energetic analysis suggests that the baroclinic energy conversion acts as an important energy source to balance the available potential energy loss caused by transient eddies and diabatic heating and acts as a kinetic energy (KE) source for the WP pattern. For the feedback forcing by total transient eddies, it acts as a major KE source for the WP pattern before day 0 and acts as a strong KE sink after day 0. It turns out that the barotropic energy conversion makes only weak KE contribution to the WP pattern.

Once the WP pattern forms, East Asia and North America experience strong surface air temperature anomalies of opposite signs, while strong sea surface temperature anomalies are found to occur over mid-latitude and tropical North Pacific at the same time. Concurrently, the Pacific jet and the storm track shift north-southward around their climatological position. In addition, a dipole-like shallow convective anomaly appears over mid-latitude North Pacific, and a band of anomalous deep convection tends to occur in the tropics as the energy of the WP pattern propagates into the region.

Restricted access
Panxi Dai and Benkui Tan

Abstract

Through a cluster analysis of daily NCEP–NCAR reanalysis data, this study demonstrates that the Arctic Oscillation (AO), defined as the leading empirical orthogonal function (EOF) of 250-hPa geopotential height anomalies, is not a unique pattern but a continuum that can be well approximated by five discrete, representative AO-like patterns. These AO-like patterns grow simultaneously from disturbances in the North Pacific, the North Atlantic, and the Arctic, and both the feedback from the high-frequency eddies in the North Pacific and North Atlantic and propagation of the low-frequency wave trains from the North Pacific across North America into the North Atlantic play important roles in the pattern formation. Furthermore, it is shown that the structures and frequencies of occurrence of the five AO-like patterns are significantly modulated by El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO). Warm (cold) ENSO enhances the negative (positive) AO phase, compared with ENSO neutral winters. Finally, the surface weather effects of these AO-like patterns and their implications for the AO-related weather prediction and the AO-North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) relationship are discussed.

Full access
Mingyuan Wang and Benkui Tan

Abstract

On the basis of daily data from the Japanese 55-year Reanalysis (JRA-55) for extended winters (December–March) from 1958/59 to 2014/15, this study examines the formation mechanisms and climate impacts of the subseasonal Scandinavian (SCA) pattern. Results indicate that the SCA pattern manifests itself as Rossby wave trains, arising from the initial height disturbances over the North Atlantic and propagating into the Scandinavian peninsula and central Siberia. One type of SCA may arise from a Rossby wave train over the North Atlantic that is closely coupled to an anomalous convective heating dipole and persists for about 2 weeks (convection-preceded SCAs). Another type of SCA arises from the weak height disturbances over the North Atlantic; the height disturbance over the Arctic also contributes to the SCA formation, with no significant convective heating anomalies being observed in the North Atlantic (convection-free SCAs). The results also indicate that both SCA types may cause strong climate anomalies in the Arctic and Eurasia that persist for about 2 weeks. The surface air temperature (SAT) anomalies assume a dipolar structure with one extremum located over the Greenland Sea through Barents Sea and the other extremum over the Eurasian continent. Associated with the SAT anomalies is a significant increase or decrease of sea ice cover over the Greenland Sea and Barents Sea, while over the Eurasian continent snow depth anomalies are found to occur over eastern Europe, western Asia, and the Russian Far East. Furthermore, as convection-free SCAs propagate vertically into the stratosphere, significant changes of intensity and air temperature of the stratospheric polar vortex are observed.

Free access
Ying Dai and Benkui Tan

Abstract

The western Pacific (WP) pattern is a major teleconnection pattern that influences the wintertime Northern Hemisphere climate variations. Based on daily NCEP–NCAR reanalysis data, this study examines the climate impacts and the El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO) modulation of two types of the WP pattern. The result shows that the WP patterns may arise from precursory disturbances over Asia and the North Pacific or from the Pacific–North American (PNA) pattern of the same polarity as or opposite polarity to that of the WP patterns. Among these WP patterns, the WP patterns that arise from the PNA pattern of the same polarity are most influential on North American near-surface and polar stratospheric air temperatures; furthermore, their frequency of occurrence, amplitude, and duration can be affected by ENSO phases: the positive WP patterns occur more frequently with larger amplitude and longer duration in El Niño than in La Niña; and the negative WP patterns occur less frequently with smaller amplitude and shorter duration in El Niño than in La Niña. The above findings suggest that the PNA pattern plays a crucial role in the climate impacts and the ENSO modulation of the WP patterns.

Full access
Ying Dai and Benkui Tan

Abstract

Previous studies have mainly focused on the influence of El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO) on seasonal-mean conditions over East Asia and North America. This study, instead, proposes an ENSO pathway that influences the weather events over East Asia and North America, in which the eastern Pacific teleconnection pattern (EP) plays an important role. On the one hand, the EP pattern can induce significant surface temperature anomalies over East Asia during its development and mature stages, with the positive (negative) EPs causing colder (warmer) than normal weather events. Besides, the frequency of occurrence of EPs is significantly modulated by ENSO, with 50% of the positive EPs occurring in La Niña winters, and 47% of the negative EPs occurring in El Niño winters. As a result, in El Niño winters, more negative and fewer positive EPs tend to occur, and thus more warm and fewer cold weather events are expected in East Asia. For La Niña winters, the reverse is true. On the other hand, for the EP pattern without its canonical convection pattern (referred to as the nonconvective EP), extremely cold anomalies over the northern United States and western Canada are induced in its negative phase. Moreover, when there are positive sea surface temperature anomalies in the central equatorial Pacific, the frequency of occurrence of negative nonconvective EPs is 2.0 times greater than the climatological value, and thus an enhanced likelihood of extremely cold spells over North America may be expected.

Full access
Jiacan Yuan, Benkui Tan, Steven B. Feldstein, and Sukyoung Lee

Abstract

The teleconnections of the wintertime North Pacific are examined from the continuum perspective with self-organizing map (SOM) analysis. Daily ERA-Interim data for the 1979–2011 period are used. It is found that most of the North Pacific teleconnections can be grouped into several Pacific–North American (PNA)-like, western Pacific (WP)-like, and east Pacific (EP)-like SOM patterns. Each of the SOM patterns has an e-folding time scale of 7–10 days.

The WP-like SOM patterns undergo a decline in their frequency from early to late winter, and vice versa for the EP-like SOM patterns, corresponding to an eastward seasonal shift of the North Pacific teleconnections. This seasonal shift is observed for both phases of the WP and EP patterns, and is only weakly sensitive to the phase of El Niño–Southern Oscillation. It is shown that the interannual variability of the PNA, WP, and EP can be interpreted as arising from interannual changes in the frequency of the corresponding SOM patterns. The WP- and EP-like SOM patterns are found to be associated with statistically significant sea ice cover anomalies over the Sea of Okhotsk and the Bering Sea. The low-level wind and temperature anomalies associated with these patterns are consistent with the changes in sea ice arising from both wind-driven sea ice motion and freezing and/or melting of sea ice due to horizontal temperature advection. Furthermore, widespread precipitation anomalies over the North Pacific are found for all three patterns.

Full access
Jiacan Yuan, Steven B. Feldstein, Sukyoung Lee, and Benkui Tan

Abstract

Boreal winter jet variability over the North Atlantic is investigated using 40-yr European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts Re-Analysis (ERA-40) data, where the variability is defined by the first EOF of the zonal wind on seven vertical levels. The principal component time series of this EOF is referred to as the jet index. A pattern correlation analysis indicates that the jet index more accurately describes intraseasonal North Atlantic zonal wind variability than does the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO). A series of composite calculations of the jet index based on events of intraseasonal convective precipitation over the tropical Indian and western Pacific Oceans reveals the following statistically significant relationships: 1) negative jet events lead enhanced Indian Ocean precipitation, 2) positive jet events lag enhanced Indian Ocean precipitation, 3) positive jet events lead enhanced western Pacific Ocean precipitation, and 4) negative jet events lag enhanced western Pacific Ocean precipitation. These intraseasonal relationships are found to be linked through the circumglobal teleconnection pattern (CTP). Implications of the sign of the CTP being opposite to that of the jet index suggest that relationships 1 and 3 may arise from cold air surges associated with the CTP over these oceans. On interdecadal time scales, a much greater increase in the frequency of precipitation events from 1958 to 1979 (P1) to 1980 to 2001 (P2) was found for the Indian Ocean relative to the western Pacific Ocean. This observation, combined with relationships 2 and 4, leads to the suggestion that this change in the frequency of intraseasonal Indian Ocean precipitation events may make an important contribution to the excitation of interdecadal variability of the North Atlantic jet.

Full access
Ying Dai, Steven B. Feldstein, Benkui Tan, and Sukyoung Lee

Abstract

The mechanisms that drive the Pacific–North American (PNA) teleconnection pattern with and without its canonical tropical convection pattern are investigated with daily ERA-Interim and NOAA OLR data (the former pattern is referred to as the convective PNA, and the latter pattern is referred to as the nonconvective PNA). Both the convective and nonconvective positive PNA are found to be preceded by wave activity fluxes associated with a Eurasian wave train. These wave activity fluxes enter the central subtropical Pacific, a location that is favorable for barotropic wave amplification, just prior to the rapid growth of the PNA. The wave activity fluxes are stronger for the positive nonconvective PNA, suggesting that barotropic amplification plays a greater role in its development. The negative convective PNA is also preceded by a Eurasian wave train, whereas the negative nonconvective PNA grows from the North Pacific contribution to a circumglobal teleconnection pattern. Driving by high-frequency eddy vorticity fluxes is largest for the negative convective PNA, indicating that a positive feedback may be playing a more dominant role in its development.

The lifetimes of convective PNA events are found to be longer than those of nonconvective PNA events, with the former (latter) persisting for about three (two) weeks. Furthermore, the frequency of the positive (negative) convective PNA is about 40% (60%) greater than that of the positive (negative) nonconvective PNA.

Full access
Benkui Tan, Jiacan Yuan, Ying Dai, Steven B. Feldstein, and Sukyoung Lee

Abstract

The eastern Pacific (EP) pattern is a recently detected atmospheric teleconnection pattern that frequently occurs during late winter. Through analysis of daily ERA-Interim data and outgoing longwave radiation data for the period of 1979–2011, it is shown here that the formation of the EP is preceded by an anomalous tropical convection dipole, with one extremum located over the eastern Indian Ocean–Maritime Continent and the other over the central Pacific. This is followed by the excitation of two quasi-stationary Rossby wave trains. Departing from the subtropics, north of the region of anomalous convection, one Rossby wave train propagates eastward along the East Asian jet from southern China toward the eastern Pacific. The second wave train propagates northward from east of Japan toward eastern Siberia and then turns southeastward to the Gulf of Alaska. Both wave trains are associated with wave activity flux convergence where the EP pattern develops. The results from an examination of the E vector suggest that the EP undergoes further growth with the aid of positive feedback from high-frequency transient eddies. The frequency of occurrence of the dipole convection anomaly increases significantly from early to late winter, a finding that suggests that it is the seasonal change in the convection anomaly that accounts for the EP being more dominant in late winter.

Full access