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Sheng Wang, Suxia Liu, Xingguo Mo, Bin Peng, Jianxiu Qiu, Mingxin Li, Changming Liu, Zhonggen Wang, and Peter Bauer-Gottwein

Abstract

Four satellite-based precipitation products [TMPA real time (T-rt), its gauge-adjusted version (T-adj), Climate Prediction Center (CPC) morphing technique (CMORPH) real time (C-rt), and its gauge-adjusted version (C-adj)] were evaluated by a gauge-based synthesis dataset. Further, these products along with the CMORPH gauge–satellite blended version (C-ga), which is virtually C-adj in precipitation ungauged regions and is controlled by gauge analysis over regions of a dense station network, were intercompared with daily streamflow predicted by the distributed vegetation interface processes (VIP) model in the Lhasa and Gongbo basins of the southeast Tibetan Plateau. Results show these satellite-based products perform better in summer than in other seasons. Relative to the gauge-based synthesis dataset, for areal precipitation of the Lhasa basin from 2007 to 2010, biases of C-rt and T-rt are −10.49% and 157.88%, respectively. Biases of C-adj and T-adj are 3.42% and 24.12%, respectively. The C-rt bias is underestimation of the volume of observed rainfall correctly detected and overestimation of the volume of falsely alarmed rainfall, while T-rt bias comes from overestimation of the volume of observed rainfall correctly detected. Simulation efficiencies of stream discharges driven by T-adj and C-adj are better than those by T-rt and C-rt, which are consistent with the accuracies of these products. With benchmarked model parameters using the gauge-based dataset, C-adj presents well for simulation, while T-adj needs parameter recalibration to achieve good skills. Compared to T-adj and C-adj, better simulation could be obtained by C-ga in precipitation-gauged regions.

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Bin Yong, Jingjing Wang, Liliang Ren, Yalei You, Pingping Xie, and Yang Hong

Abstract

The Diaoyu Islands are a group of uninhabited islets located in the East China Sea between Japan, China, and Taiwan. Here, four mainstream gauge-adjusted multisatellite precipitation estimates [TRMM Multisatellite Precipitation Analysis, version 7 (TMPA-V7); CPC morphing technique–bias-corrected product (CMORPH-CRT); Precipitation Estimation from Remotely Sensed Information Using Artificial Neural Networks–Climate Data Record (PERSIANN-CDR); and Global Satellite Mapping of Precipitation–gauge adjusted (GSMaP_Gauge)] are adopted to detect the rainfall characteristics of the Diaoyu Islands area with a particular focus on typhoon contribution. Out of the four products, CMORPH-CRT and GSMaP_Gauge show much more similarity both in terms of the spatial patterns and error structures because of their use of the same morphing technique. Overall, GSMaP_Gauge performs better than the other three products, likely because of denser in situ observations integrated in its retrieval algorithms over East Asia. All rainfall products indicate that an apparent rain belt exists along the northeastern 45° direction of Taiwan extending to Kyushu of Japan, which is physically associated with the Kuroshio. The Diaoyu Islands are located on the central axis of this rain belt. During the period 2001–09, typhoon-induced rainfall accounted for 530 mm yr−1, and typhoons contributed on average approximately 30% of the annual precipitation budget over the Diaoyu Islands. Higher typhoon contribution was found over the southern warmer water of the Diaoyu Islands, while the northern cooler water presented less contribution ratio. Supertyphoon Chaba, the largest typhoon of 2004, recorded 53 h of rainfall accumulation totaling 235 mm on the Diaoyu Islands, and this event caused severe property damage and human casualties for Japan. Hence, the Diaoyu Islands play an important role in weather monitoring and forecasting for the neighboring countries and regions.

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Bin Deng, Shoudong Liu, Wei Xiao, Wei Wang, Jiming Jin, and Xuhui Lee

Abstract

Models of lake physical processes provide the lower flux boundary conditions for numerical predictions of weather and climate in lake basins. So far, there have been few studies on evaluating lake model performance at the diurnal time scale and against flux observations. The goal of this paper is to evaluate the National Center for Atmospheric Research Community Land Model version 4–Lake, Ice, Snow and Sediment Simulator using the eddy covariance and water temperature data obtained at a subtropical freshwater lake, Lake Taihu, in China. Both observations and model simulations reveal that convective overturning was commonplace at night and timed when water switched from being statically stable to being unstable. By reducing the water thermal diffusivity to 2% of the value calculated with the Henderson–Sellers parameterization, the model was able to reproduce the observed diurnal variations in water surface temperature and in sensible and latent heat fluxes. The small diffusivity suggests that the drag force of the sediment layer in this large (2500 km2) and shallow (2-m depth) lake may be strong, preventing unresolved vertical motions and suppressing wind-induced turbulence. Model results show that a large fraction of the incoming solar radiation energy was stored in the water during the daytime, and the stored energy was diffused upward at night to sustain sensible and latent heat fluxes to the atmosphere. Such a lake–atmosphere energy exchange modulated the local climate at the daily scale in this shallow lake, which is not seen in deep lakes where dominant lake–atmosphere interactions often occur at the seasonal scale.

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Bin Yong, Liliang Ren, Yang Hong, Jonathan J. Gourley, Xi Chen, Jinwei Dong, Weiguang Wang, Yan Shen, and Jill Hardy

Abstract

Hydrological processes in most semiarid regions on Earth have been changing under the impacts of climate change, human activities, or combinations of the two. This paper first presents a trend analysis of the spatiotemporal changes in water resources and then diagnoses their underlying atmospheric and socioeconomic causes over 10 catchments in the Laoha basin, a typical semiarid zone of northeast China. The impacts of climate variability and human activities on streamflow change were quantitatively evaluated by the VIC (Variable Infiltration Capacity) model. First, results indicate that six out of the 10 studied catchments have statistically significant downward trends in annual streamflow; however, there is no significant change of annual precipitation for all catchments. Two abrupt changes of annual streamflow at 1979 and 1998 are identified for the four largest catchments. Second, the Laoha basin generally experienced three evident dry–wet pattern switches during the past 50 years. Furthermore, this basin is currently suffering from unprecedented water shortages. Large-scale climate variability has affected the local natural hydrologic system. Third, quantitative evaluation shows human activities were the main driving factors for the streamflow reduction with contributions of approximately 90% for the whole basin. A significant increase in irrigated area, which inevitably resulted in tremendous agricultural water consumption, is the foremost culprit contributing to the dramatic runoff reduction, especially at midstream and downstream of the Laoha basin. This study is expected to enable policymakers and stakeholders to make well-informed, short-term practice decisions and better plan long-term water resource and ecoenvironment management strategies.

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Takamichi Iguchi, Wei-Kuo Tao, Di Wu, Christa Peters-Lidard, Joseph A. Santanello, Eric Kemp, Yudong Tian, Jonathan Case, Weile Wang, Robert Ferraro, Duane Waliser, Jinwon Kim, Huikyo Lee, Bin Guan, Baijun Tian, and Paul Loikith

Abstract

This study investigates the sensitivity of daily rainfall rates in regional seasonal simulations over the contiguous United States (CONUS) to different cumulus parameterization schemes. Daily rainfall fields were simulated at 24-km resolution using the NASA-Unified Weather Research and Forecasting (NU-WRF) Model for June–August 2000. Four cumulus parameterization schemes and two options for shallow cumulus components in a specific scheme were tested. The spread in the domain-mean rainfall rates across the parameterization schemes was generally consistent between the entire CONUS and most subregions. The selection of the shallow cumulus component in a specific scheme had more impact than that of the four cumulus parameterization schemes. Regional variability in the performance of each scheme was assessed by calculating optimally weighted ensembles that minimize full root-mean-square errors against reference datasets. The spatial pattern of the seasonally averaged rainfall was insensitive to the selection of cumulus parameterization over mountainous regions because of the topographical pattern constraint, so that the simulation errors were mostly attributed to the overall bias there. In contrast, the spatial patterns over the Great Plains regions as well as the temporal variation over most parts of the CONUS were relatively sensitive to cumulus parameterization selection. Overall, adopting a single simulation result was preferable to generating a better ensemble for the seasonally averaged daily rainfall simulation, as long as their overall biases had the same positive or negative sign. However, an ensemble of multiple simulation results was more effective in reducing errors in the case of also considering temporal variation.

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