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  • Author or Editor: Bin Zhang x
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Yafeng Zhang, Bin He, Lanlan Guo, and Daochen Liu

Abstract

A time lag exists between precipitation P falling and being converted into terrestrial water. The responses of terrestrial water storage (TWS) and its individual components to P over the global scale, which are vital for understanding the interactions and mechanisms between climatic variables and hydrological components, are not well constrained. In this study, relying on land surface models, we isolate five component storage anomalies from TWS anomalies (TWSA) derived from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment mission (GRACE): canopy water storage anomalies (CWSA), surface water storage anomalies (SWSA), snow water equivalent anomalies (SWEA), soil moisture storage anomalies (SMSA), and groundwater storage anomalies (GWSA). The responses of TWSA and of the individual components of TWSA to P are then evaluated over 168 global basins. The lag between TWSA and P is quantified by calculating the correlation coefficients between GRACE-based TWSA and P for different time lags, then identifying the lag (measured in months) corresponding to the maximum correlation coefficient. A multivariate regression model is used to explore the relationship between climatic and basin characteristics and the lag between TWSA and P. Results show that the spatial distribution of TWSA trend presents a similar global pattern to that of P for the period January 2004–December 2013. TWSA is positively related to P over basins but with lags of variable duration. The lags are shorter in the low- and midlatitude basins (1–2 months) than those in the high-latitude basins (6–9 months). The spatial patterns of the maximum correlations and the corresponding lags between individual components of the TWSA and P are consistent with those of the GRACE-based analysis, except for SWEA (3–8 months) and CWSA (0 months). The lags between GWSA, SMSA, and SWSA to P can be arranged as GWSA > SMSA ≥ SWSA. Regression analysis results show that the lags between TWSA and P are related to the mean temperature, mean precipitation, mean latitude, mean longitude, mean elevation, and mean slope.

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Ziqian Zhong, Bin He, Lanlan Guo, and Yafeng Zhang

Abstract

A topic of ongoing debate on the application of PDSI is whether to use the original version of the PDSI or a self-calibrating form, as well as which method to use for calculating potential evapotranspiration (PET). In this study, the performances of four forms of the PDSI, including the original PDSI based on the Penman–Monteith method for calculating PET (ETp), the PDSI based on the crop reference evapotranspiration method for calculating PET (ET0), the self-calibrating PDSI (scPDSI) based on ETp, and the scPDSI based on ET0, were evaluated in China using the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), modeled soil moisture anomalies (SMA), and the terrestrial water storage deficit index (WSDI). The interannual variations of all forms of PDSI agreed well with each other and presented a weak increasing trend, suggesting a climate wetting in China from 1961 to 2013. PDSI-ET0 correlated more closely with NDVI anomalies, SMA, and WSDI than did PDSI-ETp in northern China, especially in northeastern China, while PDSI-ETp correlated more closely with SMA and WSDI in southern China. PDSI-ET0 performed better than PDSI-ETp in regions where the annual average rainfall is between 350 and 750 mm yr−1. The spatial comparability of scPDSI was better than that of PDSI, while the PDSI correlated more closely with NDVI anomalies, SMA, and WSDI than did scPDSI in most regions of China. Knowledge from this study provides important information for the choice of PDSI forms when it is applied for different practices.

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Yixin Wen, Qing Cao, Pierre-Emmanuel Kirstetter, Yang Hong, Jonathan J. Gourley, Jian Zhang, Guifu Zhang, and Bin Yong

Abstract

This study proposes an approach that identifies and corrects for the vertical profile of reflectivity (VPR) by using Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) precipitation radar (PR) measurements in the region of Arizona and southern California, where the ground-based Next Generation Weather Radar (NEXRAD) finds difficulties in making reliable estimations of surface precipitation amounts because of complex terrain and limited radar coverage. A VPR identification and enhancement (VPR-IE) method based on the modeling of the vertical variations of the equivalent reflectivity factor using a physically based parameterization is employed to obtain a representative VPR at S band from the TRMM PR measurement at Ku band. Then the representative VPR is convolved with ground radar beam sampling properties to compute apparent VPRs for enhancing NEXRAD quantitative precipitation estimation (QPE). The VPR-IE methodology is evaluated with several stratiform precipitation events during the cold season and is compared to two other statistically based correction methods, that is, the TRMM PR–based rainfall calibration and a range ring–based adjustment scheme. The results show that the VPR-IE has the best overall performance and provides much more accurate surface rainfall estimates than the original ground-based radar QPE. The potential of the VPR-IE method could be further exploited and better utilized when the Global Precipitation Measurement Mission's dual-frequency PR is launched in 2014, with anticipated accuracy improvements and expanded latitude coverage.

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Guoqiang Tang, Ziyue Zeng, Di Long, Xiaolin Guo, Bin Yong, Weihua Zhang, and Yang Hong

Abstract

The goal of this study is to quantitatively intercompare the standard products of the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Multisatellite Precipitation Analysis (TMPA) and its successor, the Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) mission Integrated Multisatellite Retrievals for GPM (IMERG), with a dense gauge network over the midlatitude Ganjiang River basin in southeast China. In general, direct comparisons of the TMPA 3B42V7, 3B42RT, and GPM Day-1 IMERG estimates with gauge observations over an extended period of the rainy season (from May through September 2014) at 0.25° and daily resolutions show that all three products demonstrate similarly acceptable (~0.63) and high (0.87) correlation at grid and basin scales, respectively, although 3B42RT shows much higher overestimation. Both of the post-real-time corrections effectively reduce the bias of Day-1 IMERG and 3B42V7 to single digits of underestimation from 20+% overestimation of 3B42RT. The Taylor diagram shows that Day-1 IMERG and 3B42V7 are comparable at grid and basin scales. Hydrologic assessment with the Coupled Routing and Excess Storage (CREST) hydrologic model indicates that the Day-1 IMERG product performs comparably to gauge reference data. In many cases, the IMERG product outperforms TMPA standard products, suggesting a promising prospect of hydrologic utility and a desirable hydrologic continuity from TRMM-era product heritages to GPM-era IMERG products. Overall, this early study highlights that the Day-1 IMERG product can adequately substitute TMPA products both statistically and hydrologically, even with its limited data availability to date, in this well-gauged midlatitude basin. As more IMERG data are released, more studies to explore the potential of GPM-era IMERG in water, weather, and climate research are urgently needed.

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Zengxin Zhang, Chong-Yu Xu, Bin Yong, Junjun Hu, and Zhonghua Sun

Abstract

Droughts are becoming the most expensive natural disasters in former Sudan and have exerted serious impacts on local economic development and ecological environment. The purpose of this paper is to improve understanding of the temporal and spatial variations of droughts by using the Standard Precipitation Index (SPI) and to discuss their relevance to the changes of hydrological variables in Sudan. The analysis results show that 1) droughts start in the late 1960s in Sudan and severe droughts occur during the 1980s in different regions of Sudan—the annual precipitation and soil moisture also reveal the evidence that the droughts prevail since the late 1960s; 2) the greater negative soil moistures anomalies are found in central and southern Sudan during the rainy seasons while greater negative anomalies of precipitation occur only in central Sudan compared between 1969–2009 and 1948–68; 3) the precipitation recycling ratio averaged over 1948–2009 decreases from south to north and the percentage of local actual evapotranspiration to local precipitation in dry conditions is greater than that in wet conditions; and 4) the highest (second highest) correlations appear between soil moisture and precipitation (actual evapotranspiration) and the significant decreases in annual soil moisture are associated with the decrease of annual precipitation and the increase of annual temperature. This suggests that continuous droughts in Sudan are caused jointly by the decrease of precipitation and the increase of temperature in the region.

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