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Huang Shou Bo


The citrus tree is susceptible to frost damage. Winter injury to citrus from freezing weather is the major meteorological problem in the northern pail of citrus growing regions in China. Based on meteorological data collected at 120 stations in southern China and on the extent of citrus freezing injury, five climatic regions for citrus winter survival in China were developed. They were: 1) no citrus tree injury. 2) light injury to mandarins (citrus reticulate) or moderate injury to oranges (citrus sinensis), 3) moderate injury to mandarins or heavy injury to oranges, 4) heavy injury to mandarins, and 5) impossible citrus tree growth. This citrus climatic classification was an attempt to provide guidelines for regulation of citrus production, to effectively utilize land and climatic resources, to chose suitable citrus varieties, and to develop methods to prevent injury by freezing.

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Yu Huang, Bo Wu, Tim Li, Tianjun Zhou, and Bo Liu


The interdecadal variability of basinwide sea surface temperature anomalies (SSTAs) in the tropical Indian Ocean (TIO), referred to as the interdecadal Indian Ocean basin mode (ID-IOBM), is caused by remote forcing of the interdecadal Pacific oscillation (IPO), as demonstrated by the observational datasets and tropical Pacific pacemaker experiments of the Community Earth System Model (CESM). It is noted that the growth of the ID-IOBM shows a season-dependent characteristic, with a maximum tendency of mixed layer heat anomalies occurring in early boreal winter. Three factors contribute to this maximum tendency. In response to the positive IPO forcing, the eastern TIO is covered by the descending branch of the anomalous Walker circulation. Thus, the convection over the southeastern TIO is suppressed, which increases local downward shortwave radiative fluxes. Meanwhile, the equatorial easterly anomalies to the west of the suppressed convection weaken the background mean westerly and thus decrease the upward latent heat fluxes over the equatorial Indian Ocean. Third, anomalous westward Ekman currents driven by the equatorial easterly anomalies advect climatological warm water westward and thus warm the western TIO. In summer, the TIO is out of the control of the positive IPO remote forcing. The ID-IOBM gradually decays due to the Newtonian damping effect.

Open access
Xin Huang, Tianjun Zhou, Andrew Turner, Aiguo Dai, Xiaolong Chen, Robin Clark, Jie Jiang, Wenmin Man, James Murphy, John Rostron, Bo Wu, Lixia Zhang, Wenxia Zhang, and Liwei Zou


The Indian summer monsoon (ISM) rainfall affects a large population in South Asia. Observations show a decline in ISM rainfall from 1950 to 1999 and a recovery from 1999 to 2013. While the decline has been attributed to global warming, aerosol effects, deforestation, and a negative-to-positive phase transition of the interdecadal Pacific oscillation (IPO), the cause for the recovery remains largely unclear. Through analyses of a 57-member perturbed-parameter ensemble of model simulations, this study shows that the externally forced rainfall trend is relatively weak and is overwhelmed by large internal variability during both 1950–99 and 1999–2013. The IPO is identified as the internal mode that helps modulate the recent decline and recovery of the ISM rainfall. The IPO induces ISM rainfall changes through moisture convergence anomalies associated with an anomalous Walker circulation and meridional tropospheric temperature gradients and the resultant anomalous convection and zonal moisture advection. The negative-to-positive IPO phase transition from 1950 to 1999 reduces what would have been an externally forced weak upward rainfall trend of 0.01 to −0.15 mm day−1 decade−1 during that period, while the rainfall trend from 1999 to 2013 increases from the forced value of 0.42 to 0.68 mm day−1 decade−1 associated with a positive-to-negative IPO phase transition. Such a significant modulation of the historical ISM rainfall trends by the IPO is confirmed by another 100-member ensemble of simulations using perturbed initial conditions. Our findings highlight that the interplay between the effects of external forcing and the IPO needs be considered for climate adaptation and mitigation strategies in South Asia.

Open access