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Zhina Jiang, Da-Lin Zhang, Rudi Xia, and Tingting Qian


In this study, the presummer diurnal cycle of rainfall (DCR) over southern China is examined using the merged 0.1°-resolution gridded hourly rain gauge and satellite rainfall dataset and the National Centers for Environmental Prediction Final Global Analysis during April to June of 2008–2015. Results show pronounced diurnal variations in rainfall amount, frequency, and intensity over southern China, with substantially different amplitudes from southwestern to southeastern China, and from the pre- to postmonsoon-onset period. Southwestern China often encounters significant nocturnal-to-morning rainfall under the influence of enhanced nocturnal low-level southwesterly winds. Southeastern China is dominated by afternoon rainfall, as a result of surface heating, likely aided by local topographical lifting. Both the pre- and postmonsoon-onset periods exhibit two diurnal rainfall peaks: one in the early morning and the other in the late afternoon. But the latter shows the two peaks with nearly equal amplitude whereas the former displays a much larger early morning peak than that in the late afternoon. Three propagating modes accounting for the presummer DCR are found: (i) an eastward- or southeastward-propagating mode occurs mostly over southwestern China that is associated with enhanced transport of warm and moist air from tropical origin and the induced low-level convergence, (ii) a quasi-stationary mode over southeastern China appears locally in the warm sector with weak-gradient flows, and (iii) an inland-propagating mode occurs during the daytime in association with sea breezes along the southern coastal regions, especially evident throughout the postmonsoon-onset period.

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Xiaoling Jiang, Yali Luo, Da-Lin Zhang, and Mengwen Wu


An extensive urban agglomeration has occurred over the Yangtze River delta (YRD) region of East China as a result of rapid urbanization since the middle 1990s. In this study, a 44-yr (i.e., 1975–2018) climatology of the summertime extreme hourly precipitation (EXHP; greater than the 90th percentile) over the YRD is analyzed, using historical land-use data, surface temperature, and hourly rain gauge observations, and then the relationship between rapid urbanization and EXHP changes is examined. Results show significant EXHP contrasts in diurnal variation and storm type roughly before and after middle July. That is, tropical cyclones (TCs) account for 16.4% of the total EXHP hours, 80.5% of which occur during the late summer, whereas non-TC EXHP accounts for 94.7% and 66.2% during the early and late summer, respectively. Increasing trends in occurrence frequency and amount of the non-TC and TC-induced EXHP are detected over the urban agglomeration. Statistically significant larger increasing trends in both the EXHP and surface temperature are observed at urban stations than those at the nearby rural stations. An analysis of 113 locally developed non-TC extreme rainfall events during 2011–18 summers also suggests the contribution of the urban heat island effects to the more occurrences of EXHP, especially over a band-shaped urban region where several major cities are distributed. This study reveals a significant correlation between rapid urbanization and increased EXHP during the past two decades over the YRD region. The results have important implications for understanding the impact of urbanization on EXHP changes in a warming climate.

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